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Digestion Process: Crohn's Disease, Proton Pumps, Aspirin

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Questions for the Digestive tract

1. Pretend you are a piece of solid food. Describe:

a. The process of being chewed. Swallowed, and the events that occur in stomach until you are squirted as chime into the duodenum (secretions, and the digestive process).

b. Pretend you are in the duodenum. What enzymes are secreted? Where do the enzymes come from? What is the pH in the chime as it comes out of the pyloric sphincter?

c. Pretend you are now digested into small molecules of fat, protein and carbohydrate. Describe how you now are absorbed into the blood.

2. How do proton pump inhibitors like Nexium work on ulcer? Why does aspirin increase stomach acid and decrease mucus secretion? How do Prilosee and Pepcid AC work? What does bismuth do for ulcers?

3. What are the major cause and symptoms of Crohn's disease? How does Crohn's differ from ulcerative colitis in location and disease manifestation?

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https://brainmass.com/biology/pharmacology-and-toxicology/digestion-process-crohns-disease-proton-pumps-aspirin-485520

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Questions for the Digestive tract

1. Pretend you are a piece of solid food. Describe:
a. The process of being chewed. Swallowed, and the events that occur in stomach until you are squirted as chime into the duodenum (secretions, and the digestive process).
As food is chewed, saliva is produced (it is also produced just by smelling food). Saliva contains compounds and enzymes that break down food. Your teeth help to make the food into smaller, more manageable pieces (by grinding and mashing the food) so that the digestive enzymes can further break food down. Substances are also released to disinfect and neutralize acidity (potassium bicarbonate, lysozyme). The tongue molds the softened food into a ball or bolus for swallowing. When you swallow, the food passes into the pharynx. The passages to the lungs and nose are closed, so the food then enters the esophagus, a muscular tube that moves food to the stomach. This is performed through a series of muscle contractions called peristalsis. At the bottom of the esophagus is a ring shaped muscle called the lower esophageal sphincter, which relaxes to let food into the stomach, and closes to prevent vomiting.

Once the food arrives in the stomach, the muscular walls churn the food into a liquid-like substance called chyme, a semi-fluid mass of partly digested food. The stomach also secretes additional enzymes (pepsinogen, renin) and acids (hydrochloric acid) that help break down proteins, fats, and alcohol. Gelatinase helps to digest meat, gastric amylase digests starch not yet digested by mouth, and gastric lipase digests butter fat. The stomach can expand or contract depending upon how much food it contains. The stomach is lined with mucosa, a membrane that secretes a protective substance (mucus), which protects the stomach lining. Solid food can remain in the stomach for up to 5 hours. ...

Solution Summary

This detailed solution describes the digestion process in detail. It also explains how proton pump inhibitors like Nexium work on ulcers, and why aspirin increases stomach acid and decreases mucus secretion. It explains how Prilosee and Pepcid AC work and what bismuth does for ulcers. It describes the major cause and symptoms of Crohn's disease and explains how Crohn's differ from ulcerative colitis in location and disease manifestation. APA references are included.

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Questions for Digestion and Urinary Tract

Questions for digestion and urinary tract (Multiple Choices): Please refer to the attachment for original question document.

1. Which of the following will increase acid secretion in the stomach?
A) Aspirin
B) Proton pump blocker
C) Gastrin
D) All of the above
E) Only A and C above

2. Resistin:
A) Secretion is increased in Type II diabetes due to excess fat accumulation
B) Decreases insulin signaling in muscle and other tissues
C) Causes insulin to bind tighter to the insulin receptor
D) All of the above
E) Only A and B above

3. Crohn's disease differs from ulcerative colitis because:
A) Crohn's disease can also affect in the small intestine
B) Crohn's disease can skip areas and ulcerative colitis is usually continuous
C) Crohn's disease is a chronic, progressive immune-related disease
D) All of the above
E) Only A and B above

4. Celiac sprue:
A) Is due to an autoimmune response to gluten
B) Can be triggered by eating certain grains that contain gluten
C) Can cause weight loss and diarrhea
D) All of the above
E) Only B and C above

5. If GFR goes down, then:
A) Renin release will be increased as compensation
B) Aldosterone secretion will increase eventually (indirectly)
C) Blood volume will increase due to increased water and sodium retention
D) All of the above
E) Only A and B above

6. If a loop diuretic drug blocks the reabsorption of Na+/K+/Cl- in the thick ascending loop, then:
A) Urine volume will decrease
B) Urine osmolality will decrease
C) Sodium retention in the body will increase
D) None of the above

7. The highest osmolality in the kidney is:
A) In the outer cortex
B) In the outer medulla
C) In the inner medulla
D) None of the above

8. Drugs that inhibit ADH will:
A) Cause the urine to be more concentrated
B) Increase urinary output
C) Increase the amount of aquaporins in the collecting tubule
D) None of the above

9. The juxtaglomerular (JG) cells can:
A) Measure blood pressure with mechano (stretch) receptors in the afferent arterioles since they are adjacent to the afferent arterioles
B) Secrete renin in response to high arteriole pressure
C) Secrete renin in response to parasympathetic stimulation
D) All of the above
E) Only A and C above

10. The higher the GFR, the:
A) Lower the amount of filtrate
B) Greater the blood pressure at the glomerulus
C) Greater the hydrostatic pressure at the glomerulus
D) All of the above
E) Only B and C above

11. Renin:
A) Can increase Angiotensin levels directly
B) Can increase AGII indirectly
C) Can increase Aldosterone indirectly
D) All of the above
E) Only A and C above

12. Colloid (osmotic) pressure in Bowman's capsule:
A) Is negative because the osmotic pressure of water is higher in the glomerular blood vessels
B) Is positive because the large proteins filter out of the glomerulus into the intracapsular space
C) Is more than the hydrostatic pressure into the capillary
D) All of the above
E) Only B and C

13. Which of the following events occurs in the duodenum?
A) Bile from the liver and gall bladder flow in to the duodenum from the sphincter of Oddi
B) Digestive enzymes from the pancreas enter the duodenum
C) Pepsin is activated in the duodenum
D) All of the above
E) Only A and B above

14. Which of the following is NOT the correct time for a solid bolus of food to move through the following organs?
A) Esophagus: 6-8 seconds
B) Stomach: 4-6 hours
C) Small intestine: 24-30 hours
D) Large intestine: 18-24 hours
E) Entire digestion process: 24-36 hours

15. Gastroparesis is delayed stomach emptying and can cause nausea and vomiting. The food stays longer in the stomach. Diabetes can lead to gastroparesis. Which of the following would be true in gastroparesis?
A) Increased overall secretion of acid in the stomach
B) Increased fatty foods would make gastroparesis worse
C) Carbohydrates, limited in Diabetics, would enhance movement out of the stomach
D) All of the above

16. A decrease in pancreatic secretions due to cystic fibrosis (thickened mucus partially blocking the secretions) can lead to:
A) Decreased fat digestion
B) Decreased protein digestion
C) Pancreatitis if the secretions back up into the pancreas
D) All of the above
E) Only A and C above

17. Which of the following is true about flow in the liver lobule?
A) Fluid flows out from the central vein to the portal vein
B) Bile flows out from the bile duct to the central vein
C) Fluid flows out from the portal arteriole to the central vein
D) None of the above is true

18. CCK (Cholecystokinin) causes:
A) The gallbladder to contract.
B) The Sphincter of Oddi to open
C) Increased acid secretion in the stomach
D) All of the above
E) Only A and B above

19. Gallstones that block the sphincter of Oddi (Hepatopancreatic sphincter) can:
A) Also block the pancreatic duct
B) Cause Jaundice
C) Block the flow of pepsinogen
D) All of the above
E) Only A and B above

20. Flatus (gas) is:
A) Produced primarily by bacterial action on carbohydrates
B) Produced by inadequate pepsin secretion
C) Enhanced by excess Trypsin secretion
D) All of the above
E) Only A and C above.

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