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Types of DNA Mutations and their Effects on the Protein

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What are the various types of genetic mutations in terms of how they occur, as well as their effects on the DNA sequence and the resulting protein product?

What are some examples of each of the main types of genetic mutations and how can they be identified?

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Mutations are permanent changes made in the DNA sequence.

Mutations can be categorized in various ways:

1. According to how the mutation occurred:

a. Spontaneous mutations occur as a result of an error made during DNA replication.

b. Induced mutations are caused by agents outside the cell such as chemicals and radiation.

2. According to the effect the mutation has on the DNA sequence.

a. Point Mutations - mutations that occur at a specific base position in the ...

Solution Summary

This solution consists of an explanation of the categorization of genetic mutations, based on how they occur and their effect on the DNA sequence and resulting protein product. A worksheet is also provided to help the student practice identifying the types of mutations, as well as to practice converting DNA sequences to RNA and then to protein. The answers to the worksheet are also included. All of the information is provided as MS Word documents.

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Mutation and DNA Extraction


Procedure 1:

10.In "C" we mutated one letter. What role do you think the redundancy of the genetic code plays, in light of this change?

11.Based on your observations, why do you suppose the mutations we made in "D" and "E" are called frame shift mutations.

12.Which mutations do you suspect have the greatest consequence? Why?

Procedure 2:

1. Which DNA bases pair with each other?
2. How is information to make proteins passed through generations?
3. Why do we use a salt in the extraction solution?
4. What else might be in the ethanol/aqueous interface? How could you eliminate this?
5. What is the texture and consistency of DNA?
6. Is the DNA soluble in the aqueous solution or alcohol?
7. What surprised you about DNA replication and protein synthesis?

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