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    Topic: Smoking
    The topic must relate to the human body and contain in the following:
    1. Introduction stating issue/problem and opinion/stance on this issue.
    2. Main body- history/background supporting documentation, opposing
    Opinions, pros/cons.
    3. Summary
    4. Bibliography (at least 3 sources)
    I need 2 pages(single space)

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    Topic: Smoking:

    The topic must relate to the human body and contain in the following: Introduction stating issue/problem and opinion/stance on this issue.

    The topic smoking gives you an extremely wide brief and would allow you to develop an argument fully. There is an issue regarding "depth" and "breadth". Do you answer this question in a global way indicating all of the health, social and environmental effects of smoking? Or alternatively choose one particular aspect of the smoking and health topic and discuss this in detail. In both cases you would need to follow the pattern that you have been given

    Whichever you decide there are certain ideas and concepts that you must include for both. I have included at the end of this article links that will help you. In particular the following British organisations give a good example of contrasting arguments for and against Smoking these are ASH (anti) and Forest (Pro)

    The Health risks of smoking to the body are widely documented and knowledge regarding these health risks has been developed and built up using both epidemiological studies and experimental work;

    The effects are wide reaching including both physical (medical) mainly the respiratory and cardiovascular systems and psychological.

    Medical risks include the following respiratory and cardiovascular diseases followed by some of the effects chemicals in cigarettes have on the human body:

    Cancer: chemicals within tobacco have been shown to have carcinogenic effects and as such lungs and throat cancer are prime sites however with the introduction in to the body system of carcinogens secondary tumours can develop throughout the body.

    Chronic bronchitis: Tar stimulates goblet cells and mucus glands to enlarge, producing more mucus. It destroys the cilia inhibiting the cleaning of the airways and mucus (containing dirt, bacteria and viruses) builds up blocking the smallest bronchioles. A smoker's cough is the attempt to move the mucus but it damages the epithelia resulting in scar tissue, which narrows the airways and makes breathing difficult. Infections like pneumonia may further inflame the linings resulting in a very severe cough and large quantities of phlegm.
    Emphysema: Due to constant infection, phagocytes are attracted to the lungs where they release elastase - an enzyme that breaks down the elastin in the alveoli walls, to enable them to reach the surface where the bacteria are. Without adequate elastin, the alveoli cannot stretch, so they recoil and many burst. Large air spaces appear, reducing the surface area for gas exchange and making sufferers breath more rapidly. As it progresses, patients become breathless and wheezy - they may need a constant supply of oxygen to stay alive.
    When emphysema and bronchitis are both present the term chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is used: Troublesome breathlessness often only occurs once half of the lung tissue has been destroyed, which can only rarely be reversed. Britain has the highest death rate from this disease in the world.

    The cardiovascular system
    Cardiovascular diseases are degenerative diseases of the heart and circulatory system. They are responsible for 50% of deaths in developed countries and are multifactor - smoking being one risk factor.
    This is caused by a build-up of fatty material in artery walls, which reduces the flow of blood and therefore oxygen to the tissues. An atheroma is a build up of cholesterol, fibres, dead muscle cells and platelets and is more likely to develop upon damage to the artery wall by high blood pressure, carbon monoxide or nicotine.
    Blood clots (thrombosis) become more likely and if one develops in the coronary artery a heart attack may be the result, while if it occurs in an artery supplying the brain, a stroke may result.
    Coronary heart disease this is a disease of the coronary arteries, which branch from the aorta to supply the heart muscle. If arteriosclerosis of these vessels occurs, then the heart has to work harder and blood pressure rises. This makes it difficult for the heart to receive the extra nutrients and oxygen it requires during exercise.
    Three forms exist:
    Angina is severe chest pains upon exercising caused by a shortage of blood to the heart muscle but causes no death of heart tissue and stops upon resting.
    Heart attacks occur upon the blocking of a moderate branch of the coronary artery by a blood clot and cause starvation and death of heart tissue.
    Heart failure is when the coronary artery starts to block up and results in a gradual weakening of the heart.
    These occur if an artery in the brain bursts and blood leaks into the brain tissue or when an artery supplying the brain becomes blocked. The brain tissue becomes starved of oxygen and dies. Strokes can be fatal or very mild and may affect speech, memory and control of the body.
    Links between smoking and cardiovascular disease
    Smoking increases the concentration of blood cholesterol, which is a risk factor, so smokers increase the risk of having heart disease or a stroke.
    Effect of chemicals:
    Tar: This is a mixture of aromatic substances, which settles on the airway linings and stimulates changes that may lead to obstructive lung disease and lung cancer.
    Carbon monoxide this gas diffuses across the alveoli into the blood and onto the red blood cells, combining with haemoglobin to form carboxyhaemoglobin. This stops the haemoglobin from becoming fully saturated and so it carries 5-10% less oxygen. This places a strain on the heart as the heart muscle receives less oxygen and carbon monoxide can damage directly, the linings of arteries.
    NicotineThis drug is absorbed readily into the blood and stimulates the nervous system to reduce the diameter of arterioles and the adrenal glands to release adrenaline. This increases heart rate and blood pressure and decreases the blood supply to the extremities - for example, the hands and feet.Another effect is that platelets become stickier which, can lead to an increased risk of blood clots forming.
    Other risks to health include psychological dependency, damage to the foetus when smoking during pregnancy and links to the use of tobacco and erective dysfunction.
    Having looked at the ...

    Solution Summary

    The expert examines smoking topics for human body.