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Value of ATP, channel vs. carrier proteins, hormonal effects

What are the advantages of using ATP as the energy-transferring molecule in a cell?

Explain the differences between channel proteins and carrier proteins and why cells need both.

Insulin increases glucose transport across the cell membrane of an adipocyte but not across the membrane of a liver cell. How can one hormone have two different effects?

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Solution Preview

ATP, or adenosine tri-phosphate has 3 phosphates, as implied by its name. The great thing about that is that it can lose each phosphate and expend the energy associated with breaking phosphate-phosphate bonds at least twice. Thus, one molecule of ATP can be used at least twice for some form of reaction that requires energy. As a chemical equation: ATP --> ADP + P + energy, ADP --> AMP + P + energy

This is opposed to a molecule that can only be used once for such an energy releasing reaction, and then have to be recycled ...

Solution Summary

This solution discusses the advantages of using ATP, explains the differences between channel proteins and carrier proteins, and discusses how one hormone can have two different effects.