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#1 How did the theory of biogenesis lead the way for the germ theory of disease? (1pt.)

#2 In 1864, Lister observed that patients recovered completely from simple fractures, but compound fractures had "disastrous consequences." He knew that the application of phenol (carbolic acid) to fields in the town of Carlisle prevented cattle disease. In 1864, Lister treated compound fractures without complications. How was Lister influenced by Pasteur's work? Why was Koch's work still needed? (1pt.)

#3 Describe five different ways in which humans exploit microorganisms for our benefit. (2pts.)

#4 When you blow bubbles into a glass of water, the following reactions take place:
H2O + CO2 ___A___> H2CO3 ___B___> H+ + HCO3-
What type of reaction is A? What does reaction B tell you about the type of molecule H2CO3 is? (1pt.)

#5 The antibiotic amphotericin B causes leaks in cells by combining with sterols in the plasma membrane. Would you expect to use amphotericin B against a bacterial infection? A fungal infection? Offer a reason why amphotericin B has severe side effects in humans. (1pt.)

#6 Which kinds of elements tend to make covalent bonds? Distinguish between a single and a double bond. What is polarity? Why are some covalent molecules polar and others nonpolar? What is an important consequence of the polarity of water? (2pts.)

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