1. Genetics, lifestyle, and environmental influences are all thought to influence the occurrence, worsening, and treatment of cancer. Which factor do you think has the biggest influence? Find an article to support your position.
2. Would your answer to the previous question vary based on the type of cancer (e.g. genetics is the most influential on breast cancer, but not others).
3. Should treatment of cancer take these influences into account? Why or why not?
Please go through the material & references below. The information will help you to answer the above questions.
Factors influencing cancer can be divided into two categories, risk factors and protective factors. Risk factors increase the risk of cancer occurrence while protective factors prevent from cancer. Risk factors that can be avoided for e.g. smoking are called modifiable risk factor and those are not in our hand e.g. genetic factors are called unmodifiable risk factors.
Following are some of the different risk factors of cancer:
Chemicals/Environment: Exposure to Asbestos, formaldehyde, hair dyes, cancer clusters.
Food: Acrylamide in food, Affect of Alcohol in Cancer, Artificial Sweeteners, Fluoridated water, Chemicals generated in meat cooked at high temperature.
Genetics: BRCA1 and BRCA2 (Women's risk in breast cancer and ovarian cancer increases if they inherit mutations in these genes); Li-Fraumeni syndrome (Gene: TP53; cancers associated are Breast cancer, soft tissue sarcoma, osteosarcoma (bone cancer), leukemia, brain tumors, adrenocortical carcinoma (cancer of the adrenal glands), and other cancers); Cowden syndrome (PTEN hamartoma tumor syndrome)-Gene-PTEN; Lynch syndrome (hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer)-Genes-MSH2, MLH1, MSH6, PMS2, EPCAM; Familial adenomatous polyposis-Gene-APC-Colorectal cancer, cancerous tumors in the small intestine, brain, stomach, bone, skin, and other tissues; Retinoblastoma-Gene-RB1-Eye cancer (cancer of the retina), pinealoma ...
The solution lists out the different risk factors of cancer. It further highlights about smoking and its relation to lung cancer and other types of cancer and smoking being the leading cause of cancer related death in United States. Research articles are cited to support the claims.