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    Indirect Transcription Factor Activation

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    What exactly are SMAD transcription factors and how do they regulate transcription? (can you please outline their involvement in the pathway in a simply manner which I can then use as a basis for my essay. Thank you!

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    1) What is a SMAD?

    A SMAD is a protein that is a transcription factor. Transcription factors regulate gene expression in the nucleus when they are activated. Transcription factors can be activated two ways: through direct or indirect activation. SMADS are activated indirectly by an extracellular receptor.

    Review of transcription factor activation:

    SMADs are activated indirectly. Indirect activation involves the binding of an extracellular ligand to an extracellular receptor. Activation of the ...

    Solution Summary

    Transcription factors can be activated either directly or indirectly. This response examines indirect transcription factor activation through the TGF beta and SMAD signalling pathway. Individual steps of the pathway are discussed. A brief overview of the biological significance of the pathway in human disease is addressed.