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Heredity Lab

You will need to write a lab report using the scientific method to answer the following questions:
- State which genes are dominant (the genes that get expressed over the other genes) and which genes are recessive (the genes that will not be expressed when the dominant gene is present).
- How do you know which genes are which?
- What is the ratio that is most likely to be observed across all traits?

Gregor Mendel's studies laid the foundation for modern genetics. In a series of elegant experiments, Mendel was able to deduce the most fundamental laws of single-gene and multiple-gene inheritance without having the scientific data on chromosomes, their structure, or meiotic segregation. In this lab, you will incorporate these 2 pieces of the puzzle to interpret the experimental results that were obtained by Gregor Mendel in 1865.

When your lab report is complete, post it in Submitted Assignment files.

Part 1: Using the lab animation, fill in the following data table to help you generate your hypothesis, outcomes, and analysis:

Punnett Square

Complete the following (Audesirk, Audesirk, & Byers, 2008):

1. Assign letters to the different alleles; use uppercase for dominant and lowercase for recessive.
2. Determine all of the types of genetically different gametes that can be produced by the male and female parents.
3. Draw the Punnett Square, with each row and column labeled with one of the possible genotypes of sperm and eggs, respectively. (The fractions of these genotypes are included with each label.)
4. Fill in the genotype of the offspring in each box by combining the genotype of sperm in its row with the genotype of the egg in its column. (Multiply the fraction of sperm of each type in the row headers by the fraction of eggs of each type in the column headers.)
5. Count the number of offspring with each genotype. (Note that Pp is the same as pP.)
6. Convert the number of offspring of each genotype to a fraction of the total number of offspring.

Part 2: Write a 1-page lab report using the following scientific method sections:
Purpose
- State the purpose of the lab.
Introduction
- This is an investigation of what is currently known about the question being asked. Use background information from credible references to write a short summary about concepts in the lab. List and cite references in APA style.
Hypothesis/Predicted Outcome
- A hypothesis is an educated guess. Based on what you have learned and written about in the Introduction, state what you expect to be the results of the lab procedures.
Methods
- Summarize the procedures that you used in the lab. The Methods section should also state clearly how data (numbers) were collected during the lab; this will be reported in the Results/Outcome section.
Results/Outcome
- Provide here any results or data that were generated while doing the lab procedure.
Discussion/Analysis
- In this section, state clearly whether you obtained the expected results, and if the outcome was as expected.
- Note: You can use the lab data to help you discuss the results and what you learned.
Provide references in APA format. This includes a reference list and in-text citations for references used in the Introduction section.

Reference
Audesirk, T., Audesirk, G., & Byers, B. E. (2008). Biology: Life on Earth with physiology. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Solution Preview

See attached file for solution.

Title: Heredity Lab

Instructions: You will need to write a 1- page lab report using the scientific method to answer the following questions:
• State which genes are dominant (the genes that get expressed over the other genes) and which genes are recessive (the genes that will not be expressed when the dominant gene is present).
• How do you know which genes are which?
• What is the ratio that is most likely to be observed across all traits?

Gregor Mendel's studies laid the foundation for modern genetics. In a series of elegant experiments, Mendel was able to deduce the most fundamental laws of single-gene and multiple-gene inheritance without having the scientific data on chromosomes, their structure, or meiotic segregation. In this lab, you will incorporate these 2 pieces of the puzzle to interpret the experimental results that were obtained by Gregor Mendel in 1865.

When your lab report is complete, post it in Submitted Assignment files.

Part 1: Using the lab animation, fill in the following data table to help you generate your hypothesis, outcomes, and analysis:

Punnett Square

Title: Heredity Lab

Introduction: This lab deal with the fundamental of gene, the basic functional unit of heredity. The gene is the basic unit of study in genetic research. Genetic is the study of how genes are transmitted from generation to generation. It is the study of how genes dictate the characteristic and features of species. In this lab, we shall study concept of dominant gene and recessive gene and how they are give rise to phenotype.

Purpose - To determine which genes are dominant and recessive and determine the phenotypic ratios across the traits in the offsprings.

Methods - Breeding experiment using lines of flower color that are purple and white. The pollen from a white flowered plant is transfer with a brush to pollinate a purple flower plant. Let P stands for gene that expressed purple color. Let p stands for gene that expressed white color. The Purple flower is crossed with white flower. The genotype for Purple flower is (PP) or (Pp ). The genotype for white flower is pp. So PP X pp. The progeny from the parent crosses F1 were self-pollinated with each others producing the F2 generation.

Result - All the plants resulting from the PP x pp or Pp X pp crosses had purple flower, and this progeny is called the first filial generation ( F1 ). The resulting F1 generation were all purple flower. When the F1 generation which were all purple were self-pollinated with each others, most of the offsprings were purple flower but there were some that are white flower indicating that the white phenotype had reappeared. The number of purple flower that appeared are ...

Solution Summary

The expert writes a lab report using the scientific method to answer genes dominate and recessive states. The ratios which are most likely to be observed across all traits are determined.

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