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Discussion of various cellular respiration questions

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1. CO2 that we respire was originally part of biological molecules that have been oxidized. Explain this observation to someone who has not had any biology.

2. If in an experiment, protons could somehow rapidly be removed from the inner membrane space, how would this affect synthesis by electron transport?

3. If the inner mitochondrial membrane allowed protons to move freely back and forth across it, there would be no ATP synthesis in electron transport. Explain why.

4.Why does electron transport stop if oxygen is not available?

5. Why, in eukaryotic cells, does an NADH from glycolysis result in only 2 ATP but in prokaryotic it results in 3 ATP.

- 2 ATP difference is due to Eukaryotic glycolysis occurs in cytoplasm but ETC occurs in the mitchondrial matrix. Any NADH produced in glycolysis can only pass its electrons thru the mitchondrial membrane allowing the production of 2 ATP per NADH instead of 3.

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Solution Preview

For 4 and 5, you are on the right track.
For 4, that is the answer exactly -- if no O2 available then the ETC backs up with electrons being held by the ETC proteins/enzymes.
For 5, the difference is that the Krebs and ETC take place out in the cytoplasm or along the cell membrane, while in eukaryotes it takes place inside the mitochondria.

1. CO2 that we respire was originally part of biological molecules that have been oxidized. Explain this observation in 2 or 3 sentences to someone who ...

Solution Summary

The solution discusses the various questions based on cellular respiration.

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Cellular respiration and photosynthesis, prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, and simple hypothesis

Part 1

1. Create a table comparing and contrasting the two processes. Include in your comparison variables such as organism type, energy source, cellular location, substrates/reactants/products, full and balanced chemical reaction, carrier molecules, and any other parameter you find relevant.

2. Apart from its essential role in cellular respiration, the mitochondrion is thought to be implicated in a variety of disease states as well as the process of aging. The mitochondrion contains its own circular DNA molecule(s) (termed mtDNA) which largely encodes for proteins localized to the mitochondrion itself.

3. Please provide a hypothesis and suggest an experiment to test the relationship between mtDNA and human aging.

4. Propose a direction for future research and drug development for targeting mtDNA to combat the ageing process.

Part 2

Identify and describe one or two structural and functional differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells that you believe contribute to the ability of eukaryotic cells to form the specialized cells and structures found in multicellular organisms.

While there are several differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells,

Please limit your answer to those structural and functional differences that will assist in the evolution of multicellularity.

Part 3

Choose two organisms that interact with each other, such as bees and flowers, or consider the effect of any environmental factor on an organism, such as light, sound, air quality, food preference, or nutrient quantity or quality .
Now form a simple hypothesis about this interaction.

Include the observation that led you to a hypothesis . Use the scientific method and your imagination to design an experiment that you might do to test this hypothesis.

Be sure to include controls, and describe the variables that would remain constant and the one that you want to test.

(Remember, you can only test one variable at a time.) Describe the type of data you would collect, and how you would evaluate it. What are your expected results (predictions)?

State what your conclusion would be depending on those results. Would these results lead you to accept or reject your hypothesis?

Your format should then look like this:

Introduction: Describe your observation. Include any background information you may have found.
Hypothesis: Write a statement that describes your explanation for the observation.
Methods: Describe the experiment, variables to be held constant, variable to be tested, and controls.
Predictions: What do you predict as outcomes (results) of this experiment?
Conclusions: Do you accept or reject or accept hypothesis? Explain why.

Remember, you don't have to actually do the experiment, just write what you would do to test your idea

***See attached file for full problem description.***

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