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What types of chemical can generally pass through phospholipid portions of the cell membrane and why? What types are generally prevented from passing through and why?

I would guess hydrophillic chemicals can pass through.

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Wrong way round! The phospholipid bilayer is hydrophobic. The ease with which a molecule passes through the cell membrane depends on how easily it will mix with the lipid part of the phospholipids. This comes down to its charge or its size. To put it simply- small and/or hydrophobic molecules can pass freely through the phospholipid ...