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Neolithic Urban Development

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This solution covers the concept of neolithic urban development. It describes the differences between the neolithic cities of Jericho and Catal Hoyuk as urban centers and addresses ideas regarding population growth and its role as a contributing factor in both the need for and the design of urban centers such as these. While human populations grew, so did the need to find sustainable food sources and means of shelter. Moving larger and larger populations became difficult, so the need for permanent dwellings increased as well. These factors not only led to new ideas regarding feeding and housing the population, but also to the beginning of a socio-political system that was far more complex than the simple social hierarchy that had worked for the nomadic people. Additionally, the changes that were happening in terms of subsistence and shelter ultimately had an impact on religious practices and belief systems as well.

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Solution Summary

This solution compares and contrasts two neolithic urban centers in order to provide a clear idea of how and why nomadic human populations began to form permanent settlements. The discussion includes architecture and city-plannning, subsistence methods such as animal husbandry and agriculture and irrigation, and the emergence of a socio-political structure.

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As human populations began to grow during the Neolithic period, the ability to provide for all members of a group became more and more difficult. Moving an entire community to follow herds or to subsist on local hunting and gathering is more easily done with smaller groups. The larger the group, the less there is available to each member. Therefore, as these communities grew, so did the necessity for more permanent arrangements for food and shelter. This, and the technological advances that occurred in the Neolithic, inspired the creation of permanent dwellings and villages. These "urban" centers were also possible because of the development of agriculture and animal husbandry. The necessity for shelter for the larger populations led to ...

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