What are the major forms of reciprocity found in both foraging and horticultural societies? Give examples regarding how they impact the level of conflict found in these societies.
In foraging societies, in which members of the group are often nomadic and have a limited ability to accumulate food stores, reciprocity is not simply an occasional practice, but a mode of living. In these societies, it is the survival of the group that is most important; thus the collection of food stores and materials with which to create hunting tools, cooking utensils, and clothes are shared communally. This is a kind of immediate reciprocity; a member gives the group whatever he/she has hunted or gathered, and this material is directly shared with the other members. Generally these groups have little conflict, in part because of the simplicity of their social structure and the lack of hierarchy, but also because their way of thinking ...
Foraging versus horticultural societies are examined in the solution. The major forms of reciprocity are examined. Examples are provided regarding how they impact the level of conflict found in these societies.