Part of a usability study to assess voting machines measured the time on task (TOT) of voters casting ballots (efficiency). Specifically, the data are for the same ballot cast on two different voting machines at the same location (called a precinct). Your job will be to perform a "t" test on these data and draw conclusions about which voting machine is better.
A few background items:
- The voters (participants/users) are a homogeneous group.
- Voters were randomly assigned to the voting machines.
- Thus, the two groups of voters (one group using the DRE voting machine, and the other ?using the OptiScan voting machine) have equal variances.
- We have no information to indicate that one voting machine will be better than the other. ?If you need more information, use the Internet to find web sites such as http://www.graphpad.com/quickcalcs/ttest1.cfm. (Excel has a "t" test function although it may not be currently installed in your version; you would then add it in.) ?The spreadsheet (also in this Course Content folder) contains the data and some intermediate statistical values for use in the "t" test.)
- ?Question1 - What is the null hypothesis in this usability study? (Discussed in class, but easily found on the Internet)
- ?Question 2 - How many degrees of freedom are in each group? (the DRE and OptiScan groups)?
- Question 3 - Which "t" test should be used - paired, unpaired/equal variance, unpaired/unequal ?variance?)
- Question 4 - Should a one-tail, or two-tailed test be used, and why?
- Question 5 - What is the t value?
- ?Question 6 - Is the t value significant at the 0.05 level, and why?
- Question 7 - Is the t value significant at the 0.01 level, and why?
- Question 8 - Based on (1) the above analysis, and (2) the number of ballots completed (see spreadsheet), which voting machine has better usability, and why?
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Case Study - Observations methods: MAZDA and SYZYGY
Please assist with the following case study on observation methods. This is for a Business Research Design course.
Case Study - Observation Methods
MAZDA and SYZYGY
When Mazda Motor Europe set out to improve its Web site, the company wanted details about how consumers were using the site and whether finding information was easy. Mazda hired a research firm called Syzygy to answer those questions with observational research. Syzygy's methods include the use of an eye-tracking device that uses infrared light rays to record what areas of a computer screen a user is viewing. For instance, the device measured the process computer users followed in order to look for a local dealer or arranging a test drive. Whenever a process seemed confusing or difficult, the company looked for ways to make the Web site easier to navigate.
To conduct this observational study, Syzygy arranged for 16 subjects in Germany and the United Kingdom to be observed as they used the Web site. The subjects in Germany were observed with the eye-tracking equipment. As the equipment measured each subject's gaze, software recorded the location on the screen and graphed the data. Syzygy's results included three-dimensional contour maps highlighting the "peak" areas where most of the computer users' attention was directed.
1. What could Mazda learn from eye-tracking software that would be difficult to learn from other observational methods?
2. What are the shortcomings of this method?
3. Along with the eye-tracking research, what other research methods could help Mazda assess the usability of it Web site? Summarize your advice for how Mazda could use complementary methods to obtain a complete understanding of its Web site usability.