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What is the difference between Paramaeter & Statistics
What is the concept of operationalize????
What are focus groups
What is the meaning of lodging double variable, validity & liability
Explain Normal Distribution
What is mean, median mode
What is range & dispersion
What the independent & dependent variable
Explain exploration descriptive casuable research

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What is the difference between Parameter and Statistics
A parameter is a characteristic of a population; a population in this case related to parameter is defined as: collection of all possible individuals, objects, or measurements of interest. Whereas statistics is the science of collecting, organizing, presenting, analyzing, and interpreting data to assist in making more effective decisions.

What is the concept of operationalize?
The term operationalize discusses how concepts are transformed into variables to make them measurable and subject to testing.

What are focus groups?
A focus group is a panel of people, led by a trained moderator, who meet for 90 minutes to 2 hours. The facilitator or moderator uses group dynamics principles to focus or guide the group in an exchange of ideas, feelings, and experiences on a specific topic. The focus group panel is usually made up of 6-10 respondents.

What is the meaning of lodging double variable, validity, and reliability?

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The solutions provide a definition for each of the questions listed below.

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Statistics Questions - quasi-experiments

A. Complete Jackson Even-numbered chapter exercises, p, 360

1Describe the advantages and disadvantages of quasi-experiments? What is the fundamental weakness of a quasi-experimental design? Why is it a weakness? Does its weakness always matter?
2If you randomly assign participants to groups, can you assume the groups are equivalent at the beginning of the study? At the end? Why or why not? If you cannot assume equivalence at either end, what can you do? Please explain.
3Explain and give examples of how the particular outcomes of a study can suggest if a particular threat is likely to have been present.
4Describe each of the following types of designs, explain its logic, and why the design does or does not address the selection threats discussed in Chapter 7 of Trochim and Donnelly (2006):
Non-equivalent control group pretest only
Non-equivalent control group pretest/posttest
5Why are quasi-experimental designs used more often than experimental designs?
6One conclusion you might reach (hint) after completing the readings for this assignment is that there are no bad designs, only bad design choices (and implementations). State a research question for which a single-group post-test only design can yield relatively unambiguous findings.

Part II - Answer the following questions:
1What research question(s) does the study address?
2What is Goldberg's rationale for the study? Was the study designed to contribute to theory? Do the results of the study contribute to theory? For both questions: If so, how? If not, why not?
3What constructs does the study address? How are they operationalized?
4What are the independent and dependent variables in the study?
5Name the type of design the researchers used.
6What internal and external validity threats did the researchers address in their design? How did they address them? Are there threats they did not address? If so how does the failure to address the threats affect the researchers' interpretations of their findings? Are Goldberg's conclusions convincing? Why or why not?
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