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# Hypothesis Testing and Biostatistics

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Part 1

7.109 Suppose we wish to test the hypothesis H0: μ = 2 vs. H1: μ ≠ 2. We find a two-sided p-value of .03 and a 95% CI for μ of (1.5, 4.0). Are these two results possibly compatible? Why or why not?

Nutrition
The mean ±1 sd of ln [calcium intake (mg)] among 25 females, 12 to 14 years of age, below the poverty level is 6.56 ± 0.64. Similarly, the mean ± 1 sd of ln [calcium intake (mg)] among 40 females, 12 to 14 years of age, above the poverty level is 6.80 ± 0.76.

8.3 What is the appropriate procedure to test for a significant difference in means between the two groups? 8.4 Implement the procedure in Problem 8.3 using the critical-value method.

8.3. AND 8.4 DOES NOT HAVE TO BE ANSWER BUT I THOUGT YOU NEED TO SEE IT TO ANSWER 8.5 AND 8,6
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8.5 What is the p-value corresponding to your answer to Problem 8.4?

8.6 Compute a 95% CI for the difference in means between the two groups.
Nutrition
An important hypothesis in hypertension research is that sodium restriction may lower blood pressure. However, it is difficult to achieve sodium restriction over the long term, and dietary counseling in a group setting is sometimes used to achieve this goal. The data on urinary sodium in Table 8.20 were obtained on 8 individuals enrolled in a sodium-restricted group. Data were collected at baseline
and after 1 week of dietary counseling
Table 8.20 Overnight sodium excretion (mEq/8hr) before and after dietary counseling
SEE ATTACHED

8.58 What are appropriate hypotheses to test whether dietary counseling is effective in reducing sodium intake over a 1-week period (as measured by overnight urinary sodium excretion)?

8.59 Conduct the test mentioned in Problem 8.58, and report a p-value.

8.60 Provide a 95% CI for the true mean change in overnight sodium excretion over a 1-week period.

Cardiology
A study was performed concerning risk factors for carotidartery stenosis (arterial narrowing) among 464 men born in 1914 and residing in the city of Malmö, Sweden [16]. The data reported for blood-glucose level are shown in Table 8.29.

Table 8.29 Comparison of blood-glucose level between men with and without stenosis
SEE ATTACHED

8.111 What test can be performed to assess whether there is a significant difference in mean blood-glucose level between men with and without stenosis? (Hint: F355,107,.95 =
1.307; F355,107,.975 = 1.377.)

8.112 Implement the test mentioned in Problem 8.111, and report a p-value (two-tailed).

https://brainmass.com/statistics/hypothesis-testing/hypothesis-testing-biostatistics-527728

#### Solution Summary

The solution assists with determining the hypothesis testing and biostatistics.

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Please answer all questions. Please show all your work (detailed solution) so i can understand how you came up with the anwer. Thanks

(See attached file for full problem description)

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EXHIBIT 1: A manager at a local bank analyzed the relationship between monthly salary and three independent variables: length of service (measured in months), gender (0=female, 1=male) and job type (0=clerical, 1=technical). The following tables summarizes the regression results:

df SS MS F
Regression SS 3 1004346.771 334782.257 5.96
Unexplained SS 26 1461134.596 56197.48445

Coefficients Standard Error t Stat P-Value
Constant 784.92 322.25 2.44 0.02
Service 9.19 3.20 2.87 0.01
Gender 222.78 89.00 2.50 0.02
Job -28.21 89.61 -0.31 0.76

(1) Referencing Exhibit 1, based on the SS table and 0.05 significance level, the global null hypothesis test of the multiple regression model (2 points):
(a) Will be rejected and conclude that monthly salary is related to all the independent variables
(b) Will be rejected and conclude that monthly salary is related to at least one of the independent variables
(c) Will not be rejected
(d) Will show a high multiple coefficient of determination
(e) Cannot be ascertained given the above information ______________

(2) Referencing Exhibit 1, the adjusted multiple coefficient of determination is (3 points):
(a) 5.93%
(b) 59.3 %
(c) 40.7 %
(d) 33.9%
(e) None of the above ________________

(3) Referencing Exhibit 1, based on hypothesis tests for the individual regression coefficients at a 5% significance level (2 points),
(a) All the regression coefficients are not equal to zero,
(b) "Job" is the only significant independent variable in the model
(c) Only "Service" and "Gender" are significantly related to monthly salary
(d) "Service" is the only significant variable in the model
(e) None of the variables are significant ________________

(4) Referencing Exhibit 1, which of the variables are dummy variables in the model (2 points)?
(a) Salary
(b) Service
(c) Service and gender
(d) Gender and job
(e) Service, gender and job ________________

(5) Referencing Exhibit 1, the results for the variable "Gender" show (2 points)
(a) Males average \$222.78 more than females in monthly salary
(b) Females average \$222.78 more than males in monthly salary
(c) Gender is not related to monthly salary
(d) Gender and months of service are correlated ________________

(6) A survey of 144 retail stores revealed that a particular brand and model of a VCR retails for \$375 with a standard deviation of \$20. What is a 99% confidence interval to estimate the true cost of the VCR?

_____________________

(7) A survey of an urban university (population 25,450) showed that 870 of 1100 students sampled supported a fee increase to fund improvements to the student recreation center. Using the 95% level of confidence, what is the confidence interval for the true proportion who support the fee increase?

_____________________

(8)The average cost of tuition, room and board at small private liberal arts colleges is reported to be \$8,500 per term but a financial administrator believes that the average cost is higher. A study conducted using 150 small liberal arts colleges showed that the average cost per term is \$9,000 with a standard deviation of \$1,200. What is the decision at 0.05 level of significance?

_____________________

(9) The mean weight of newborn infants at a community hospital is 6.6 pounds. A sample of seven infants is randomly selected and their weights are recorded as 9.0; 7.3; 6.0; 8.8; 6.8; 8.4; and 6.6 pounds. What is the decision for a statistical significant change in average weights at birth at the 5% level of significance?

_____________________

(10) A manufacturer of automobile transmissions uses three different processes. The management ordered a study of the production costs to see if there is a difference among the three processes. A summary of the findings is shown below.
Process 1 Process 2 Process 3
Process Totals (\$ 100's) 137 108 107
Sample Size 10 10 10
Sum of Squares 1893 1188 1175
What is the sum of squares for treatments?
_____________________
For problem 10, what is the sum of squares for error?
_____________________
For problem 10, what is your conclusion at alpha = .05?

_____________________

(11) A sales manager for an advertising agency believes there is a relationship between the number of contacts and the amount of sales. To verify this belief, the following data was collected:

Salesperson # of Contacts Sales (\$ '000)
1 14 24
2 12 14
3 20 28
4 16 30
5 46 80
6 23 30
7 48 90
8 50 85
9 55 120
10 50 110

What is the value of coefficient of determination ?

_____________________

For problem 11, what is the regression equation?
_____________________

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(See attached file for full problem description)

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