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    Step 1: set up hypotheses and determine the level of significance

    step 2: select the appropriate test statistic

    step 3: set up the decision rule

    step 4: compute the test statistic

    step 5: conclusion (reject Ho or do not reject Ho; also state the conclusion in the context of the problem i.e. " We have statistically significant evidence to show that...)

    Here are the steps with some elements missing:

    In Excel file, show how the sample proportion is calculated: p hat = 482/3536. The known poportion is po = 0.211 (historical control; prevalence of smoking among American adults).

    step 1: hypotheses are:

    Ho: p = 0.211

    H1: p < 0.211

    alpha = 0.05

    Sample Data

    N 3536

    Number of Smokers 482

    Sample Proportion 0.136312

    Population Proportion 0.211

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    Solution Summary

    The expert examines biostatistics. Excel is used as a tool. A complete, neat and step-by-step solution is provided in the attached file.