Introduction and Methods section:
Impulse-Control disorder is a formal DSM IV disorder and is a core symptom that is found across an array of psycho-pathological conditions and consequently contributes to a large number of mental health problems in society.
As cited in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th Edtion), the essential feature of Impulse-Control Disorders is the failure to resist an impulse, drive, or temptation to perform an act that is harmful to the person or to others. The individual feels an increasing sense of tension or arousal before committing the act and then experiences pleasure, gratification, or relief at the time of committing the act. Following the act there may or may not be regret, self-reproach, or guilt.
Generally, impulsivity represents the inability to match behavior to context; a failure of the unconscious process by which a potential action is checked against memory and environment en route to a conscious decision.
Controlled studies and clinical experience suggest that three classes of drugs; mood stabilizers, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), and atypical neuroleptics, are likely to be useful.
This study investigated the efficacy of an SSRI (Citalopram) on impulsivity across two dosage levels and against two cohorts of patients diagnosed with Impulse-Control Disorder.
To assess the potential drug efficacy of Citalopram, the following hypotheses were addressed:
First, both patient groups (Veterans and non-Veterans) should demonstrate no difference in measures of impulse control because both have been diagnosed solely for Impulse-Control disorder consequently no other discerning differences between Veterans and non-Veterans have been identified. Second, across dosage levels, subjects should become more proficient on the Iowa Card Task. Specifically, they should become guided less by "emotional" temptation for immediate gain and more by "cognitive" realizations of gradual and long-term gain. This should be reflected by a dosage dependent reduction of impulsivity. Finally, if there are differences between Veterans and non-Veteran patients with Impulse-Control disorder that have been unknown to this points, a difference in impulsivity between the two groups across dosage levels will be revealed.
Patient from both the Veteran's Hospital (Veterans) and Loma Linda Behavioral Medical Center (non-Veterans) were administered two dosage levels of Citalopram (a site specific SSRI) and compared against a control group (Placebo) for impulse control as measured by the Iowa Card Task. The Iowa Card Task (ICT) has been widely used with clinical and normal populations to assess decision-making processes.
Previous studies have demonstrated that individuals diagnosed with Impulse Control disorder make maladaptive decisions not only in the ICT but also in their personal lives. These individuals continue to make poor decisions despite long-term negative personal consequences.
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1. There is no significant difference in the measures of impulse control among Veterans and non-Veterans
Student's t test is used to test this hypothesis.
One important assumption of student t test is the homogeneity of variance. This assumption is tested using the Levene's Test for Equality of Variances. ...
The solution provides step by step method for statistical analysis in SPSS. Formula for the calculation and Interpretations of the results are also included.