Analyze the following data based on 2000 U.S. Census Data and American Cancer Society data:
Cancer death rate - both sexes (all forms of cancer) per 100,000 (1998-2002):
District of Columbia: 238.7
Lung cancer rates - both sexes (per 100,000) (1198-2002):
District of Columbia: 57.5
Smokers as a % of population (2002):
District of Columbia: 22.1%
District of Columbia: 572,059
United States: 281,421,906
National Averages (1998-2002)
All cancers death rate, smokers (per 100,000): 270.9
Lung cancer rate, smokers (per 100,000): 196.0
All cancers death rate, non-smokers (per 100,000): 175.6
Lung cancer rate, non-smokers (per 100,000): 13.1
A. Calculate the adjusted cancer rates (adjusting for smoking) for the District of Columbia, Kentucky and Utah. Indicate whether you use the direct or indirect method of standardization and briefly explain why. Also, calculate the lung cancer rate adjusting for smokers in the population, for the three states/districts/commonwealths.
B. Test the correlation between smoking and all cancers. Test the correlation between smoking and lung cancer. There are only three data points, but see if a linear fit can be established.
C. No calculations/software needed! Briefly think of two confounders (other than smoking) that might affect the adjusted all cancers death rate for the three states. Present a plausible hypothesis for how each of those confounders would be correlated with cancer.
Calculating adjusted cancer rates and discussing confounders of the regression analysis based on US Census Data.