Men and women occupy unequal positions in the labor force and within work organizations. Outline the major differences in male and female employment, then examine the factors underlying these inequalities in work opportunities, conditions, and rewards.
Let's consider the types of information you would include in this paper. This response draws heavily on one source, but provides an excellent overview of the factors and research to include in a paper on this topic.
1. Outline the major differences in male and female employment, and then examine the factors underlying these inequalities in work opportunities, conditions, and rewards.
The major differences in male and female employment are unequal pay, differential access and occupational distribution. Specific factors underlie these inequalities in work opportunities, condition, and rewards, which are also addressed under each factor below.
(1) Equal Pay for Equal Work
? In 1980 women earned approximately 59 percent of every dollar earned by men (Eitzen & Baca-Zinn, 1994). This ratio improves slightly during economic growth periods in the national economy.
? In 1990 the figure was 71 percent of every dollar earned by men (Eitzen & Baca-Zinn, 1994). Recessionary periods, on the other hand, are characterized by growing disparity in wages earned by men and women.
? Many, like Esping-Andersen (1990), argue that as the economy becomes more internationalized, the gender bias in earnings begins to disappear. The logic here is that advanced capitalism requires the best person for the job despite gender (or race and ethnicity). There is some evidence to support Esping-Andersen's claim. Women who work in internationally competitive industrial sectors do appear to earn salaries that are closer to those earned by men (see Long, 1993).
? Long (1995), however, disputes the claim that all women are experiencing greater parity with their male counterparts. Huge salaries earned by women who have skills demanded by corporations that produce in the international arena mask continued (and perhaps growing) inequality experienced between men and women in the United States in the lower social strata (as cited in http://www.delmar.edu/socsci/rlong/intro/gender.htm).
(2) Differential Access
By differential access, it means that men have greater access to the labor market than do women. Differential access does not explain the entire problem, however. Women earn less than men even on jobs where all other qualifications are held constant.
In fact, three issues tie into institutional discrimination that result in differential work opportunities, including:
? The first item notes that women enter the labor market at different and lower paying levels than do men.
? A second observation notes that women enter the labor market later than men and periodically have to leave.
? A final observation revolves around the fact that women earn less overtime than do men.
Let's look more closely at these three factors which draws heavily on one source.
(a) Women Enter the Labor Market with Lower Paying Jobs
? Historically, men were doctors while women were nurses; men taught in college while women taught in primary schools; men worked construction while women were secretaries; men worked in the automobile and steel industries while women worked in apparels and textiles. In each of the above comparisons men are employed in sectors that pay higher wages and than women in the respective sectors (http://www.delmar.edu/socsci/rlong/intro/gender.htm).
(b) Women Enter the Labor Market Later than Men and Periodically Have to Leave.
? The explanation is obvious. Women enter the labor market later than men and periodically leave to have children. Childbearing is obviously a necessary social endeavor. The labor market and society overall would cease to function if women did not leave the labor market to have children. Unfortunately society does not compensate women for this activity (and other domestic concerns) and it penalizes them in the labor ...
This solution researches and outlines the major differences in male and female employment and then examines the factors underlying these inequalities in work opportunities, conditions, and rewards. References listed in APA format.