o Define modernization. What are the key features of modernization? Give four examples of modernization and describe the key features in each example.
As is my usual when answering posts, I find that as your academic guide explaining concepts is about giving a clear picture by definition & expansion of ideas through providing examples and further avenues that could expand the ideas I provided in the solution. I have attached the word version, print it out to use as your guide. I have discussed each of your questions and sought to provide concise answers for them from a sociological point of view. Good Luck.
Social Change and Modernization
(o Define social change. What are the key features of social change? Give four examples of social movements, current or past, and describe the key features of each movement. )
Social Change Markers by Definition
Social Change from a sociological perspective refers to the alteration/transformation of the nature of social institutions, its structures, the way its' members behave or relate. Social Change is not the equivalent of social development although social development could be argued as an indicator of social change. Social change can also refer to an event or phenomenon that alters/transforms the behaviours/reactions or manner or a social group of shared values/identity; although subjectively it could also be argued to mean acts of advocacy that causes positive transformations/alterations in society.
There are various theories that can explain social change. 6 are always debated or cited when explaining social change. From a religious point of view there is the theory of degeneration or social decline, when man falls from Grace --- a theory used by theologists. Evolutionary theories including Darwinism --- the survival of the fittest, argues that change happens because human evolution dictates it. Historical materialism, proposed by Karl Marx combines a thorough study of history, economics & society; an explanatory system that looks for causes of developments/change. The theory of social progress looking at history as linear and geared towards development, building on the progress of each generation. Social Cycles or Historical cycles, a pattern of growth and decline of societies looking at social change as phases enclosed in cycles. Sociobiology,a neo-darwinistic study that draws from sociology, anthropology, biology & other sociological and evolutionary studies to explain social behaviour across known species.
Social Change, Paradigm Shifts & Social Movements
In recent social science debates, Thomas Kuhn's idea on paradigm shifts to explain social phenomenon has attracted many social scientists to use his ideas in explaining social change, or at least as a signifier for the need to 'transform' or find an alternative at current practices that has reached 'critical mass', that is --- inapplicability in terms of ideas, inappropriate social systems in social structures. One of the best examples to explain paradigm shift idea-wise is referring to the 'shift' from linear or Newtonian Physics to Quantum Physics. Prior to Einstein's Theory of Relativity, the norm equations ...
The solution defines the ideas & debates behind social change and provides examples of social movements in relation to this. The solution also looks at the debates & discussions behind modernization providing examples & highlighting key features of each. attached is a word version.