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    Religion: Welfare, Public Schools, Church & State

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    1) What role does religion play in political decision making social control?

    2) Should there be welfare and are they fair to all.

    3) Should we seperate church and state in public schools.

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    Please see response attached. I hope this helps and take care.

    1) What role does religion play in political decision-making social control?

    Religion plays a role in political decision-making on social control in several ways: 1) promoted through the religious values and principles of those in power 2) in countries with strong political -religious links e.g., Northern Ireland religious value of social control direct the political decisions, to name a couple.

    For example, social and political institutions linked to religion foster bipolar societies in both Northern Ireland and Québec. In Northern Ireland, Protestants and Catholics attend separate schools and churches, rarely intermarry, and live in separate neighborhoods for physical and psychological protection; religion preserves each group's way of life (Whyte 1990; Keogh and Haltzel 1994). In Canada, religious affiliation promoted distinct life-styles, as economic differences and parochial schools reinforced religious and linguistic polarization, bearing in mind the political salience of religion in Québec has declined drastically since 1960s while it remains a central concern in Northern Ireland. Thus, decisions of social control would reflect those of religious values and principles. http://www.gmu.edu/academic/pcs/bryce.htm

    Today, religion has more salience as a social category in Northern Ireland than in Québec. In Northern Ireland, religious difference tends to create a moral rejection of compromise. In Québec, religious differences historically helped maintain relatively peaceful coexistence, since the Catholic Church advocated acceptance of Canada in exchange for a level of cultural autonomy at the provincial level. Ironically, the decline of religion's importance in Québec may increase the potential for intergroup conflict, as Québécois identification switched from the church to the province without reducing the importance of linguistic differences. http://www.gmu.edu/academic/pcs/bryce.htm

    In United States, although church and state are separate, President Bush's religious affiliations definitely impact political decision-making, including those of social control. As well, religious groups rally around social issues, which are then reflected in policies and law. However, it is more indirect than in a country like Northern Ireland or Iraq, with strong political-religious ties.

    The following example discusses religious organizations at the political level, and how the religious decision-making plays a role in decision-making and social control indirectly through these voluntary religious organizations.

    Example 1: (excerpt)

    Most religious institutions emerged in traditional societies where actions were largely and automatically determined by precedent and custom without much need for rational calculation. "Natural" institutions like the family held societies together, and role assignments were largely prescribed by traditions of age and gender. Religious groups tended to be monopolistic and supported by the community-at-large. In the modern world, however, religious groups are voluntary associations, governed by written constitutions and operated as parliamentary assemblies. Their support is not automatic, and congregations as well as denominational bodies must attend to raising budgets, developing pay scales, and handling housekeeping and maintenance.
    Decision making involves the processes of making explicit major values (assumptions), prioritizing objectives (goals), adopting larger means (strategies), and smaller means (tactics). The preceding are all essentials in what administrators term the organization's policy . John Dewey outlined the basic steps in the idealized model of rational problem solving—diagnosing the break in habit/routine; "defining the problem"; determining the immediate goal(s), the means (resources under your control), and the limits (circumstances not under your control such as the law, funds); evaluating the possible alternative choices to control the problem; and, finally, prioritizing and applying alternative solutions to the problem one by one. (A new stage, evaluating outcomes, has recently been added.) Lindblom, however, says this ideal model is seldom used, because there seldom are time or resources to formulate ideal solutions. Furthermore, traditions, "sunk costs" (previous investments of time, effort, "human resources," money), lack of expertise and/or information, and human fallibilities prevent ideal solutions. Thus most committees "muddle through" as best they can.
    Thompson proposed a fourfold typology of decision models involving the agreement or disagreement on available ends and means. (1) Computational decisions are those involving agreement on both ends and means—engineering or bureaucratic situations ...

    Solution Summary

    This solution discusses the role religion plays in political decision making social control. It also discusses if there should b be welfare and, if so, whether it s fair to all. Finally, it discusses the separation of church and state in public schools.