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Developmental Theories of Vocational Choice

What are some of the commonalities among the developmental theories of vocational choice proposed by Robert Havighurst, Eli Ginsberg, and Donald Super?

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Hi,

Interesting theories! Let's take a look at the Some of the commonalities of these three theories. I also added extra information for each theorist for further reading and understanding.

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1. What are some of the commonalities among the developmental theories of vocational choice proposed by Robert Havighurst, Eli Ginsberg, and Donald Super?

Common to developmental theories of vocational choice such as those proposed by Robert Havighurst, Eli Ginsberg, and
Donald Super are general principles such as:

* individual development is a continuous process;

* the developmental process is irreversible;

* these processes can be differentiated into patterns called stages in the life span;

* and that the result of normal development is increasing maturity http://www.guidance-research.org/EG/impprac/ImpP2/traditional/developmental/

As a developmentalist, for example, Ginzberg et al. (1951) proposed three life stages which broadly corresponded with chronological age:

* First came the fantasy stage which lasted up until eleven years old;
* Second, the tentative stage, lasting from ages eleven to seventeen, with the three substages of interest, capacity and value;
* Third, the realistic stage, which lasted from age seventeen onwards, with substages of exploration, crystallisation and specification (http://www.guidance-research.org/EG/impprac/ImpP2/traditional/developmental/).

Donald Super

Donald Super was a doctoral student of Ginzberg's and developed many of Ginzberg's ideas but expanded the theory. In fact, Super thought Ginzberg's work had weaknesses, one of which was the failure to take into account the very significant existing body of information about educational and vocational development (Osipow & Fitzgerald, 1996, p.111, as cited in (http://www.guidance-research.org/EG/impprac/ImpP2/traditional/developmental/).

Super (1957) and Super et al. (1961) extended Ginzberg's three life stages to five (with slightly different sub-stages), arguing that occupational preferences and competencies, individual's life situations (and hence their self-concepts) all change with time and experience. He also developed the concept of vocational maturity, which may or may not correspond to chronological age. Specifically, Super (1957) extended Ginzberg's three life stages to five, with slightly different substages. He also developed the concept of vocational maturity, which may or may not correspond to chronological age. Super's five stages were:

* growth, which lasted from birth to fourteen;
* exploration lasting from age fifteen to twenty four with the substages of crystallization, specification and implementation;
* establishment from twenty five to forty four, with substages of stabilization, consolidation and advancing;
* maintenance from forty five to sixty four, with substages of holding, updating and innovating;
* finally the fifth stage of decline from age sixty five onwards, with substages decelerating, retirement planning and retirement living (http://www.guidance-research.org/EG/impprac/ImpP2/traditional/developmental/)

EXTRA INFORMATION (Excerpt)

For Super, a time perspective was always centrally important to the career development process: It has always seemed important to maintain three time perspectives: the past, from which one has come; the present, in which one currently functions; and the future, toward which one is moving. All three are of indisputable importance, for the past shapes the present and the present is the basis for the future. But if I were ...

Solution Summary

This solution explains three developmental theories of vocational choice. It articulates some of the commonalities among the developmental theories of vocational choice proposed by Robert Havighurst, Eli Ginsberg, and Donald Super. Extensive research is also provided.

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