Hi, I would like help studying for an upcoming test.
1. According to cognitive dissonance theory, justification of effort is responsible for the fact that we what? Is it tend to downplay the amount of effort we exerted to reach a goal; have fewer negative emotions while engaging in an effortful task; value a goal more highly if it was difficult to each; OR are willing to work hard for goals that we value?
2. Forced compliance may result in changing one's strongly held attitude because a large reward awaits later; the resulting cognitive dissonance is emotionally unpleasant; one finally "sees the light."; OR reversing one's opinion is rewarding?
3. Research participants are asked to read a group of traits that all describe the same friendly person. In a later memory test, which of the following words is most likely to be mistaken for having been on the list even though it was not? Is it outgoing; nasty; industrious; OR intelligent?
4. An in-group is a group to which a target person belongs; that is highly valued in society; of people who are currently physically closest to a target person (thought they may be strangers to the target); with power; OR that is highly valued in society AND with power?
5. Research on how to reduce prejudiced has been unsuccessful; suggests that certain types of inner-group contact can help; suggests that the out-group homogeneity effect is particularly resistant to change; or BOTH has been unsuccessful AND suggests that the out-group homogeneity effect is particularly resistant to change?
6. The fundamental attribution error is taking a behavior as a sign of internal dispositions and downplaying obvious or potential situational determinants; placing too much weight on situational determinants in making attributions for behavior; the tendency to see conformity in behavior across situations as based on an inferred internal disposition; OR overemphasizing the role of chance in determining behavior?
7. When we make attributions for our own behavior (as opposed to the behavior of others), we tend to overestimate the important of situational factors; ignore the importance of salient situational factors; see our behavior as more governed by situational factors than observers do; OR both overestimate the important of situational factors AND ignore the importance of salient situational factors?
8. The central route to persuasion involves reasoned thought; emotional responses; behavior change; OR all of the above?
9. Zeke is the public-relations director for Mr. Black, a gubernatorial candidate. In preparing Mr. Black for a debate, Zeke realizes that the arguments on Mr. Black's side are very weak. Instead of giving Mr. Black stronger arguments, Zeke loads Mr. Black with a bunch of tangentially relevant statistics. With this strategy, Mr. Black is most likely to persuade someone for whom the debate topic is very important; accessible through the peripheral route to persuasion; who is able to pay close attention to the debate; OR for whom the debate topic is very important AND who is able to pay close attention to the debate?
10. In an Asch experiment, the target line is five inches long but the confederates say the six-inch line is the one that matches it. The real research participant will be more likely to give the correct answer if the confederates unanimously give the wrong answer; one confederate gives the right answer (five-inch line) while the rest all say it is the six-inch line; one confederate wrongly states that the seven-inch line matches while the rest all say it is the six-inch line; OR one confederate gives the right answer (five-inch line) while the rest all say it is the six-inch line; one confederate wrongly states that the seven-inch line matches while the rest all say it is the six-inch line?
11. Which of the following is a cognitive strategy employed by those who comply with immoral orders in order to cope with their dilemma? Is it attribution of fault to the victim; dehumanization of the victim; seeing themselves as merely instruments of the authority; OR all 3?
12. In regard to the Milgram study, "slippery slope" refers: to the way the experimenter became progressively nastier to the research participants; gradual increase in shock intensities; fact that the initial act of obedience was so harsh, it was like falling off a mountain; OR fact that the learner's pain increased each time he screamed?
13. Historians often question whether historical events were determined primarily by a confluence of circumstances or by the leadership of particular individuals. These questions are analogous to issues of what in social psychology? Is it attribution; social impact theory; diffusion of responsibility; OR social facilitation?
14. In her first experience in jury duty, Grace is a wonderful foreperson. Research suggests that she will be an excellent leader in a variety of contexts; will have major traits in common with CEO's and army generals; would probably have been an equally good foreperson with a different case presented to the jury; OR all 3?
15. If confirmation bias contributed to the group polarization effect, then one way to reduce the effect would be to make sure that multiple points of view are represented in the group; have people state their opinions without making arguments to back them up; prevent people from commenting on others' stances; OR encourage people to argue strongly for their positions?
16. Deindividuation leads to an increased sense of responsibility; tightens inhibitions on impulses; is more likely under conditions of anonymity; OR seems to be a laboratory phenomenon that does not exist in the real world?
17. Which of the following statements is false? Is it that panic in a crowd generally leads to much worse outcomes that calmness would have; panic in a crowd seems to be governed by the same principles as the prisoner's dilemma; panic in a crowd may result from each individual acting rationally; OR panic in a crowd has a purely emotional; rather than cognitive; basis?
18. Research on attributions indicates that people from collectivist cultures tend to make more dispositional attributions than do people from individualist cultures; collectivist cultures are unwilling to make attributions; individualist and collectivist cultures do not differ in their tendency to make dispositional or situational attributions; OR collectivist cultures tend to make more situational attributions than do people from individualist cultures?
19. Which of the following statements about members of collectivist and individualistic cultures is false? Is it that collectivists are less likely to conform with members of an outgroup than are individualists; collectivists' friendships tend to be deeper and more lasting than those of individualists; collectivists are more likely to conform with members of an ingroup than are individualists; OR collectivists tend to make friends more easily than do individualists?
20. Evolution favors the organism with the longest lifespan; best suited to the environment; that is most complex and sophisticated; OR with the largest brain?
21. The biological survival value of a particular behavior is best measured by seeing whether the behavior leads to a relatively long adult life for the animal; allowed the animal to mate more often; increases the average number of descendants; makes the animal more aggressive; OR all 4 are roughly equally good ways to assess survival value?
As you have asked, I have highlighted the answers in red (see attachment) and checked them ...
This solution responds to the set of twenty-one questions on general psychology topics e.g. groups, individual and collective cultures, deindividuation, leadership, court system, dehumanization, cognitive strategy and others. References and links provided for further research.