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    Psychological Testing Questions

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    I need help with these questions:

    a) Information processing theories of intelligence (sequential processing and simultaneous processing. Which intelligence test uses these concepts?
    b) In what ways do intelligence tests for infants and preschool children differ from intelligence tests for school children?
    c) mental age and deviation IQ
    d) The major difference between the Revised Stanford-Binet Intelligence test (1986 edition) and the older versions of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence test
    e) Fluid and crystalized intelligence
    f) Two factor versus multi-factor theories of intelligence
    g) Individual versus group intelligence tests- in what way do they differ?
    h) Army alpha and army beta tests
    i) Explain the difference between achievement tests and aptitude tests
    j) What type of IQ scores are provided by Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC III)? What is the significance of these IQ scores?
    k) What should one consider when testing the physically disabled?
    l) Culture-fair tests

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    a) Information processing theories of intelligence (sequential processing and simultaneous processing. Which intelligence test uses these concepts?

    The Kaufman measures two types of information processing: simultaneous processing (which is often a strength for children with fragile X) and sequential processing (often a weakness). The test that has been recommended as very appropriate and helpful for children with fragile X syndrome is the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (Kaufman-ABC), which is designed for children age's two and a half to twelve and a half. Simultaneous processing items involve whole pictures with parts missing, recognition of faces, and certain spatial memory tasks. Sequential processing involves placing information in a step-by step order, such as words in sentences, number series, or sequences of hand movements. Girls with fragile X syndrome have the same patterns as boys on this measure (that is, higher simultaneous processing scores than sequential), but their overall scores are generally higher. http://www.fragilex.org/html/assess1.htm

    b) In what ways do intelligence tests for infants and preschool children differ from intelligence tests for school children?

    Intelligence tests for infants and preschool children use different methods of measuring intelligence e.g., verbal, playing with objects, etc. than those used for school children. For example, the Bayley Scales are often used for infants and toddlers from two months to two and one half years in age. The parent usually stays in the room with the child, who plays with objects and carries out various tasks (e.g. putting pegs in holes, stacking blocks) while the examiner observes and scores the responses. Testing infants and very young children can be difficult, and early scores do not always predict later performance very well. Still, infant tests can give valuable information about the developmental levels of very young children. Also, the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale-4th edition is often given after age two and a half. The Stanford-Binet relies heavily on verbal items, with questions to the child regarding vocabulary, same-different judgments, reasoning, and sentence completion. The Stanford-Binet also measures non-language reasoning with tasks such as drawing, memory for sequences of beads and numbers, and puzzles. The most commonly used tests after age four and a half are the Wechsler Scales. The Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised (WPPSI-R) is designed for children ages 4 ½-6 years old. These tests involve verbal and playing with objects rather than written tests, and often the parents are present for the younger children. http://www.fragilex.org/html/assess1.htm

    c) Mental age and deviation IQ

    In 1911, the concept of "mental age" (as distinguished from "chronological age") was introduced. For example, the 6-year-old who performed as well as the average 8-year-old was assigned a mental age of 8, while the 6-year-old who performed only as well as a 4-year-old was assigned a mental age of 4. http://www.geocities.com/rnseitz/Definition_of_IQ.html Thus, mental age is the score achieved by a person in an intelligence test, expressed in terms of the chronological age of an average normal individual showing the same degree of attainment. For example, mental age is the age corresponding to the chronological age of individuals who score at the Mean for a specified test. Through standardization it is possible to calculate the mental age for a child who is much older but scores below the Mean, or for a child who is much younger and scores above the Mean.www.into.ie/downloads/gloss1.htm

    Around 1960, psychometrists defined adult scores in terms of percentiles, and then translated those percentiles into the IQ scores that the bell-curve predicts. These percentile-derived scores are called "deviation IQs", and the older (mental age)/(chronological age) IQs are called "ratio IQs". (For a more-complete description of deviation IQs versus ratio IQs, click here. This had the effect of reducing IQ scores, since ratio IQs tend to run quite a bit higher at the higher levels than do deviation IQs. (The highest probably deviation IQ is about 200, since a deviation IQ of 200 would be expected, as mentioned above, to occur only once in every 5,000,000,000 people--the approximate current population of the earth.) The scale shown below the plot presents one approach-- (a log-normal conversion)--to estimating the ratio IQs that corresponds to given deviation IQs. http://www.geocities.com/rnseitz/Definition_of_IQ.html

    d) The major difference between the Revised ...

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    This solution responds to the questions on psychological testing.