Imagine that you are attending the World Conference on Psychotherapy in Las Vegas, Nevada. You have been selected as Graduate Student of the Year and asked to moderate a discussion between four theorists Sigmund Freud, Carl Rogers, Albert Bandura, and Albert Ellis. You have the opportunity to ask each panel member the following question:
How would you explain apparent personality differences based on culture, gender, and age? Explain how each theorist would answer this question based on your understanding of his theory of personality.
Freud theorized that there are individual differences between each person's superego, based partially on differences between the values of certain cultures. The superego is Freud's term for that part of the personality that contains the conscience. It includes the internalization of moral standards set by one's parents and what is deemed acceptable according to different societies and cultures. Freud also believed that failure to develop in the oral, anal and phallic stages of psychosexual development would lead to fixation at that stage and therefore could result in personality differences and possible problems. For example, the anal personality results from fixation at the anal stage and involves someone being excessively tidy, orderly and stubborn. There is also evidence to suggest that people vary in terms of how strong their ids, egos and superegos are. The student that can always say "no" to a party the week before exams could possess a stronger ego than someone who cannot resist the id's impulse to go to the party instead of studying. Freud would explain personality differences based on gender by saying that all ...
This solution provides a discussion how different theories explain apparent personality differences based on culture, gender and age.