1. The text discusses several methods of studying human behavior. These include the case study, naturalistic observation, correlational research, survey research, and the experimental method. If you were going to design a study investigating the relationship between alcohol and violence, which of these methods would you choose and why? What would be the relative strengths and weaknesses of this study? What ethical considerations must be taken into account while undertaking this study?
2. What is the difference between negative and positive reinforcement? Describe a situation that shows positively reinforced and negatively reinforced. Be sure to identify the reinforcer and the target behavior in your example and any shaping that occurred due to these reinforcements.
3. Say you have terrible fear of spiders?so much so that you are afraid to go on picnics or camping because of this terrible fear. Which of the psychological disorders would this fear fall under? How could have this psychological disorder been created? What would be the best way for you to treat this particular disorder?
4. How might low self-esteem develop in a person? Using Erikson's theory of psychosocial development describe the stage and what factors might occur in that particular stage that could account for the development of low self-esteem. Note: there may be more than one stage in which the development of low self-esteem may occur. You need only choose one stage, but you must explain in detail how this might occur.
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methods of studying human behavior: short answer