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    Learning and Cognition

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    Please help me with the following points, as I am preparing a speech, and presentation. I just need a jump start, and an easy way to explain it, in about 200 words for each point. I have already written my introduction, and opening statements, as well as the body of my speech. I just need some additional outside information.

    ? Definition of learning is examined
    ? Reviews the role between learning and behavior
    ? Describes two types of learning
    ? Describes the relationship between learning and cognition
    ? Provides at least one example of the relationship between learning and cognition.

    Thank you in advance.

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    Solution Preview

    Let's take a closer look at information and theories from various sources, which you can draw on your speech.


    ? Definition of learning is examined

    Many scholars define learning similarly: Learning refers to a relatively permanent change in behavior as a result of practice or experience. (Atkinson, Atkinson, Smith, Bem, & Nolen-Hoeksema, 1996, p. 227, as cited in Sheldon, 1997, http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-20190251.html). However, different theories of learning define learning in different ways, such as active versus active learning. The cognitivist paradigm essentially argues that the "black box" of the mind should be opened and understood. The learner is viewed as an active information processor (like a computer). Originators and important contributors: Merrill -Component Display Theory (CDT), Reigeluth (Elaboration Theory), Gagne, Briggs, Wager, Bruner (moving toward cognitive constructivism), Schank (scripts), Scandura (structural learning). (http://www.learning-theories.com/category/cognitive-theories).


    ? Operant (Instrumental) Conditioning
    The major theorists for the development of operant conditioning are Edward Thorndike, John Watson, and B. F. Skinner. They proposed that learning is the result of the application of consequences; that is, learners begin to connect certain responses with certain stimuli. This connection causes the probability of the response to change (i.e., learning occurs.) URL: http://chiron.valdosta.edu/whuitt/col/behsys/operant.html The theory of B.F. Skinner is based upon the idea that learning is a function of change in overt behavior. Changes in behavior are the result of an individual's response to events (stimuli) that occur in the environment. (URL: http://tip.psychology.org/skinner.html)

    ? Bandura's Social Learning Theory posits that people learn from one another, via observation, imitation, and modeling. The theory has often been called a bridge between behaviorist and cognitive learning theories because it encompasses attention, memory, and motivation. (See http://www.learning-theories.com/social-learning-theory-bandura.html#more-13)

    ? Connectionism (E. Thorndike)
    The learning theory of Thorndike represents the original S-R framework of behavioral psychology: Learning is the result of associations forming between stimuli and responses. Such associations or "habits" become strengthened or weakened by the nature and frequency of the S-R pairings.
    URL: http://tip.psychology.org/thorn.html http://www.psychology.org/links/Environment_Behavior_Relationships/Learning/

    ? Contiguity Theory (E. Guthrie)
    Guthrie's contiguity theory specifies that "a combination of stimuli which has accompanied a movement will on its recurrence tend to be followed by that movement". According to Guthrie, all learning was a consequence of association between a particular ...

    Solution Summary

    Concerning learning and cognition, this solution provides information on the five topic areas i.e. defining learning, the role between learning and behavior, types of learning and the relationship between learning and cognition. An example of the latter topic is also provided. References and a supplementary resource on learning definitions are also provided.