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Controlling through Psychological Methods

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Please help with describing ways of controlling pain through psychological methods, as well as advantages and disadvantages of each approach.

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Same here: take these as an outline. The literature here is massive. the dominant means of dealing with this are CBT and basic behaviorism. They are not totally dissimilar, and the research on them is hopeful.

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Pain Management Though Psychology:
Advantages and Disadvantages

Pain is not merely a physical stimulus followed by a mental response. It is holistic and affects the entire person and even their environment. Dealing with pain through psychology includes such methods as relaxation techniques, cognitive methods and behavioral methods. All three of these are methods of dealing with pain through learning proper reactions to pain's presence. Pain can lead to depression and feelings of hopelessness, adding mental to physical sources of suffering. The basic point is through remolding one's reactions (including how one represents the pain to one's own consciousness), it can both be controlled at its source and its effects on the mind mitigated.

In general terms, behavioral methods are designed to alter the activities of the sufferer so that pain and its mental effects are mitigated. Certain rewards or other incentives for distracting oneself from pain, for example, are common. This is the basic operant conditioning model: one wants to associate positive (or at least neutral) responses to the onset of pain. Cognitive methods are about thoughts, and these seek to change the way pain is perceived. Clearly, these are not mutually exclusive.

Turner and Clancy (1988) have shown that CBT is effective in dealing with persistent and chronic pain (the lower back, in ...

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Research Method Psychology

4. A________ is a subset of the _________
A. population; sample
B. population; random sample
C. sample; population
D. none of the above

5. The first step in the research process is to
A. review the literature on your topic
B. develop a research plan
C. Find a problem or question to examine
D. consider the relevant theories

6. "Students who have been given extra credit." This statement best represents a (n)
A. theory
B. hypothesis
C. extraneous variable
D. problem

7. Which of the following components of the research process should be conducted first?
A. conducting the project
B. literature review
C. coming up with the hypothesis
D. analysis of research findings

8. The general plan for selecting participants, assigning participants to experimental conditions, controlling extraneous variables, and gathering data is known as the
A. Hypothesis
B. Theory
C. Research design
D. Literature review

9. Which of the following steps in the research process will often result in doing statistics?
A. Analysis of research findings
B. Decisions in terms of past research and theory
C. Theoretical considerations
D. Literature review

11. ________ refers to those situations where we look for one phenomenon
But find something else.
A. Validity
B. Reliability
C. Testability
D. Serendipity

12. Which of the following is NOT a systematic source of research ideas?
A. Theory
B. Everyday occurrences
C. Classroom lectures
D. Past research

13. Which of the following ways are recommended in your text for obtaining relevant publications?

A. Making photocopies from publications
B. Using interlibrary loan
C. request a reprint from the author
D. all of the above

14. Why was the Tuskegee syphilis project considered unethical?

A. Participants were not told the real purpose of the study
B. There were excessive risks for the participants
C. Participants did not have the right to discontinue participation
D. All of the above

15. The Milgram obedience experiments had ethical problems because

A. Milgram failed to debrief his participants.
B. The project was not conducted by scientifically qualified personnel
C. The participants were under extreme emotional distress
D. The participants did not know they were in a study

16. Which ethical guidelines does deception violate?

A. full debriefing
B. informed consent
C. gaining IRB approval
D. all of the above

17. Which of the following best describes the APA guideline regarding inducements for research participation?

A. It is unethical to pay people to participate in research.
B. Researchers should avoid excessive inducements to participate in research
C. Research participation should be a course requirement for college students in introductory psychology classes.
D. Researchers cannot under any circumstances offer professional services as an inducement for research participation.

19. _________ refers to the extent to which a qualitative research report is accurate and unbiased.
A. Credibility
B. Dependability
C. Confirmability
D. Transferability

20. Dependability in qualitative research is analogous to_________ in quantitative research.
A. external validity
B. internal validity
C. construct validity
D. reliability

21. One strength of the case study method is that
A. researchers can understand the causes of behavior
B. the results exhibit high generalizability
C. the research often leads to ideas for future research
D. all of the above are strengths of the case study method

22. with archival research

A. we can make statements about causality under most circumstances
B. we can make statements about causality when the researcher has exhibited tight control over the variables.
C. we can make statements about causality when the researcher has examined only one variable instead of several.

24. "As the amount of exercising decreases weight increases." This statement represents a ________ correlation.

A. Zero
B. Positive
C. Negative
D. Curvilinear

25. Control refers to

A. directly manipulating an independent variable in a research study.
B. managing unwanted variables that could influence the results of a research project.
C. both (a) and (b)
D. none of the above

28. Why is it important to use operational definitions in research?

A. it allows extraneous variables to be controlled
B. it allows other researchers to replicate the research
C. it is the only way to randomly assign participants to conditions
D. it is allows nuisance variables to be controlled.

29. Why are extraneous variables problematic?

A. the operational definitions of extraneous variables are poor
B. the extraneous variables are purposely manipulated by the researcher
C. extraneous variables are usually measured on a Likert scale
D. the researcher does not know if the results are due to the independent variable or to the extraneous variables.

30. Experimenter expectancies usually result in participants

A. behaving in a manner opposite of experimenter expectations
B. behaving in a manner consistent with experimenter expectations
C. behaving in a natural way
D. not understanding the directions of the experimenter

31. Dickson et al. (2001) did not tell their participants that they were studying racial stereotypes because they were worried about

A. experimenter expectancies
B. demand characteristics
C. ethnocentrism
D. sampling issues

32. Research aimed at determining the universality of research results is known as ________ research

A. correlational
B .experimental
C. archival
D. cross-cultural

33. A culture-specific finding is known as a (n)

A. emic
B. etic
C. response set
D. precedent

34. Joy scored a 98% on her last Research Methods exam. Based on the concept of statistical regression we would predict that her score on the next exam will be

A. 98%
B. a little bit lower than a 98%
C. 70%
D. 58%

35. Jerry is concerned about whether his independent variable is the only possible explanation for the results of his experiment. Jerry is concerned about

A. external validity
B. internal validity
C. reliability
D. convenience sampling

36. ________ statistics summarize numbers and__________ statistics determine whether the results are significant.

A. Descriptive; inferential
B. Inferential; descriptive
C. Measurements; inferential
D. Descriptive; measurement

37. Measures of __________ refer to the typical or representative score.

A. variability
B. central tendency
C. inferential statistics
D. type I errors

40. Why is it important to understand scales of measurement?

A. the scale of measurement for the dependent variable determines the kind of statistical test that can be conducted.
B. scales of measurement are integral for inferential statistics (but not necessarily descriptive statistics)
C. scales of measurement are integral for descriptive statistics (but not necessarily inferential statistics)
D. researchers can only analyze data on the interval and ratio levels of measurement.

41. An experiment in which the experimenter directly manipulates the IV is known as a (n)

A. ex post facto research design
B. participant observation
C. correlational research design
D. true experiment

42. You should use an independent samples t test when

A. you have a two-group design you used matched pairs and your DV is measured on an interval or ratio scale of measurement
B. you have a two-group design you randomly assigned your participants and your DV is measured on a nominal or ordinal scale of measurement
C. you have a three-group design you randomly assigned your participants and your DV is measured on an interval or ratio scale of measurement
D. you have a two-group design you randomly assigned your participants and your DV is measured on an interval or ratio scale of measurement.

43. Suppose you know you would like to conduct a one-IV experiment. What is the second question that you need to answer?

A. how many levels of the IV will I use?
B. will I conduct an experiment or a correlational study?
C. will I conduct a confounded experiment or a true experiment?
D. all of the above

44. A statistical test used to analyze data from an experiment with one independent variable that has three or more groups is known as a

A. two-factor ANOVA
B. t-test
C. one-way ANOVA
D. z-test

47. If participants change over time in an experiment which threat to internal validity is potentially operating?

A. Selection
B. Maturation
C. Instrumentation
D. Diffusion of treatments

48. Why do researchers choose to use quasi-experimental designs?

A. random assignments may not be possible when studying participants from certain groups
B. random assignments may not be possible because of expense or time difficulties
C. random assignment may not be ethical in some situations
D. all of the above

49. Which is better?

A. the survey was conducted in a controlled setting
B. we conducted the survey in a controlled setting

50. Which is correct?

A. the data indicate that Terrence was correct.
B. the data indicates that Terrence was correct.

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