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History/Systems of Psychology: Rationalism, Functionalism Etc

1) Identify at least two examples of premodern, modern, and postmodern authoritarian views in contemporary culture and what are their impacts on the educational system (i.e., address the student and professor roles and the issue of academic freedom).
2) The beginning of rationalism is often traced to Descartes statement, "I think, therefore I am." Extreme forms of rationalism did not trust the senses. Sensationalists took the opposite view point, trusting the senses as being accurate representation of truth and the world.
What are the limitations of the extreme sensationalist and extreme rationalist approaches. Which we trust more - our reason or our senses?
3) William James and Functionalism were important influences on the development of American Pragmatism. Pragmatism focuses on evaluating an idea by its usefulness or outcome. Theory and technique are re-emphasized. This view still dominates much of American Psychology.
In what ways this has been either a positive influence or negative influence on psychology? Substantiate the response with examples.
4) Gestalt Psychology made many important contributions to the history of psychology. Today, very few courses cover gestalt psychology as most of its thoughts are being integrated into other theories. However, gestalt psychology has greatly impacted the understanding of perceptions and holistic approaches to psychology.
How does our belief system and world view impact the way we see the world and we understanding of psychology?
5) A historical debate that continues to rage in the field of psychology pertains to its understand.
Is psychology an art? Or, it is categorized as "soft science." How do you view psychology - as an art, a science, or both? Provide reasons for your position.

Please each response with references if apply. (Note: I need notes not an essay).

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(1) Identify at least two examples of premodern, modern, and postmodern authoritarian views in contemporary culture and what are their impacts on the educational system (i.e., address the student and professor roles and the issue of academic freedom).

Pre-modern example in contemporary time

(a) the belief is held that God is revealed truth

A contemporary view of this belief is based on "Invisible phenomena associated with thoughts and feelings of enlightenment, vision, harmony truth, transcendence, and oneness with God carried out in religious beliefs and/or practices (e.g., theistic beliefs, practices, and feelings expressed institutionally and denominationally), as the person attempts to connect with God as revealed truth (Richard & Bergins, 2005 p. 22). As an example, the type of spirituality in Humanistic psychology involves a sense of closeness and connection to human kind. As Worthington et al (2011) further explain specific techniques from cognitive and behavioral perspectives may be conceptualized in a theistic framework.
Moreover, research has utilized spirituality in the process of counseling with interventions based on behavioral and cognitive approached. As the research suggests religion and/or spirituality appear within human experiences in multiple ways and can have a major impact psychological outcomes. For instance, measures of psychological problems can be assessed on religious variables and linked to symptoms such as depression (Shafranske, 2005).

(b) The church is the ultimate interpreter of that revealed truth (www.postmodernpsychology.com).

As an example, in contemporary times the mega church is directed at reaching a large population. The mega church operates within four broad themes including: (a) following the Holy Spirit, (b) embracing the heavenly minded, (c) adhering to biblical principles, and (d) maintaining social legacies. The focus is on highlighting the truth as revealed in God or through Jesus Christ (Martin, 2011). Jesus is viewed as the Ultimate messenger of God and revelatory truth, and perceived as head of the Christian church.

The impact of these views is felt in such challenges to beliefs of God as maker or artist that created the universe. This challenge has come from scientific thinkers of theories such as the Big Bang theory in which views were conflicted on the earth's stagnation vs. movement. For instance, early classical thinkers held that the earth stood still as other planets rotated around it. However, later scientists argued that the Big Bang (earth exploded into existence as a result of planets connecting) violated the law of thermodynamics, which held that the universe inevitably flows toward maximum entropy. That is the universe was already in a disorder state, and thus there would be no energy for a big bang (Revere 2014). There is movement however, that ...

Solution Summary

This solution traces the history of psychology through premodern, modern and postmodern times to the period of Gestalt psychology.