Discuss the evolution of behavior on the contemporary theories of behavior and cognitive theory of Watson, Pavlov and Skinner. What has changed? What has remained the same? How are these theories used today?© BrainMass Inc. brainmass.com October 25, 2018, 6:53 am ad1c9bdddf
Watson's theory of behaviorism is a very interesting theory, in which Watson endorses the belief that individuals behaviors are largely influenced and/or developed based on the environment in which those individuals reside in, or are exposed to. The very interesting thing about this theory is that Watson did not believe that an individual's behavior could be studied or investigated by looking for internal mental mechanism within the individual. That would explain why they behaved in a certain manner, but that nearly all behavior was determined by the environment in which that individual was constantly exposed to. The basic premise of this has largely been unchanged, although there other psychological and philosophical perspectives that seek to add other possible reasons for individuals resulting actions and activities.
What has largely changed in reference to the evolution of the contemporary theory and/or philosophy of behaviorism, if the fact that we have more sophisticated technological methods by which to analyze brain activity, but even with this methodology, the behaviorist. It still continues to stand as a very strong rationale for why individuals behave in a manner that they do, as well as the methodologies for effectively changing unwanted behaviors. A very good example of the efficacy of this theoretical perspective, is the fact that modern-day psychologists and sociality is, believe that there is a very strong link between an individual's environment and their behavioral patterns, and this environment can even cause individuals that are goodhearted and ethical people, to behave in ways that are considered to be savage and immoral under the right conditions. Many psychologists and sociologists have endorsed the behaviorist theory, due to the fact that there seems to be a great deal more criminal activity in poverty-stricken areas, and due to the fact that there is a very strong link between poverty, low self-esteem, poor parenting, neglect and abuse, high crime rates, poor ...
Evolution as a result of natural selection.
Details: According to the Theory of Evolution, Natural Selection is the mechanism by which evolution occurs. Remember: evolution occurs at the level of the population. Individuals do not evolve, populations evolve.
The process of Natural selection is based on the following four postulates:
Postulate 1 - Individual members of a population differ from one another in many respects.
Postulate 2 - At least some of the differences among members of a population are due to characteristics that may be passed from parent to offspring. That is, they are heritable or genetic.
Postulate 3 - In each generation, some individuals in a population survive and reproduce successfully but others do not.
Postulate 4 - The fate of individuals is not determined by luck. Instead, an individual's likelihood of survival and reproduction depends on its characteristics. Individuals with advantageous traits survive longest and leave the most offspring, a process known as Natural Selection.
Choose ONE animal species. Describe the way in which an evolutionary change might occur for a particular characteristic (trait) of that species as a result of natural selection. The characteristic could be something like coloration pattern, length of the limbs, or size of the teeth or beak, or any measurable trait that is inherited.
The organism you choose should be a real one but the evolutionary change you describe can be real or theoretical.
In your own words,
a. Explain how the change in this trait occurs in terms of the four postulates listed above and in the book. You will describe what the population starts out like at time zero and then what it will look like at a later time, as a result of natural selection.
b. Explain the process by which the changes occurred. What is the selective pressure? Explain why the change might confer more fitness to a particular environment?
Tips: Make sure to include the following in your answers to a and b above:
Clearly state the name of the SPECIES you are going to be talking about for this assignment. (Make sure you know what is meant by a species.)
Also, clearly state what population of the species you are going to talk about by specifying its geographic location. (Make sure you understand what a "population" is.)
Clearly state the characteristic (trait) of the population that you are going to be talking about and explain how this trait varies among individuals.
Explain what change occurs in the environment that causes a change in the above characteristic (trait)?View Full Posting Details