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Differences Between Types of Experimental Variables

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Read chapter 7 to answer question below:

What is the difference between individual differences variables and manipulated independent variables? What impact does this difference have on causal inferences? Please give and example of each.

Responses should be at least 250 words.

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Individual differences variables are variables that people naturally differ on - they are differences that existed before our experiment. For example, people differ in age, gender, what school they attend - these are variables we cannot manipulate.

In contrast, manipulated independent variables are variables we actively modify as researchers. You may give two different groups of participants two different drugs, thereby manipulating the drug they receive. Or you may give three groups three different training programs to teach them to read.

Whether we're using individual differences or manipulated independent ...

Solution Summary

This solution discusses difference between individual differences variables and manipulated independent variables as well as the impact it has on causal inferences. The text contains 402 words and examples.

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Experimental Research - Is there an interaction between word length and word type? Explain.

Researchers are interested in how long it takes to read words as a function of (a) word length and (b) word concreteness. They present 48 participants with a list of 80 words of four different types: short concrete words, (e.g., map) long concrete words (e.g., alligator), short abstract words (truth), and long abstract words (e.g., acknowledgment). Following are the reading times (in milliseconds) for each condition.
Short Concrete: 600 Short Abstract: 950
Long Concrete: 770 Long Abstract: 1100

Identify the independent and dependent variable(s) of this hypothetical experimental study.

Did this experiment employ a within- or between-subjects design? Explain.

Are any main effects evident in the data? Explain.

Is there an interaction between word length and word type? Explain.

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