1. Thayer-Energetic arousal and Tense arousal, and Yerkes-Dodson Law, and
2. Cannon's Theory and James-Lange Theory
Let's take a closer look at these theories.
1. Thayer-Energetic arousal and Tense arousal and Yerkes-Dodson Law.
By factor analyzing responses to an adjective checklist, Thayer (1978a, 1978b, 1986; Eysenck, 1990) derived two factors that he referred to as:
? Energetic arousal (vigorous, lively, full of pep, active, happy, and activated), and
? Tense arousal (anxious, jittery, clutched up, fearful, intense, and stirred up).
Thayers two factors are unlike the PEN Model proposed by Eysenck, who proposed a theory of personality based on three biological factors that are traits (Extraversion, Neuroticism and Psychoticism) (PEN Model. 1999). Unlike extraversion and neuroticism, however, Thayer proposed that energetic and tense arousal are states, not traits. Extraverts are usually high on energetic arousal, whereas neurotics are usually high on tense arousal (Thayer, 1999, 2001). In fact, Thayer discussed four uni-polar dimensions that he groups into two higher order constructs of energetic and tense arousal. He associates energetic arousal with approach behavior and tense arousal with avoidance behavior. Theoretically, energetic arousal is increased by mild exercise and varies diurnally. Thayer (1989) adopts Gray's hypothesis that approach motivation reflects a sensitivity to cues for reward and that avoidance behavior reflects a sensitivity to cues for punishment. Thayer (1989) has argued that subjective estimates of energetic arousal are the most likely to be associated with performance, and stated that self ratings correlate more with psychophysiological measures than the measures do themselves.
Yerkes-Dodson law was first observed by Yerkes and Dodson. Yerkes-Dodson Law is related to the Pen Model and the extraversion-introversion dimension. For example, the PEN model is biologically based. Extraversion is based on cortical arousal. Arousal can be measured by skin conductance, ...
Summarizes Thayer-Energetic arousal and Tense arousal, and Yerkes-Dodson Law, as well as the Cannon's Theory and James-Lange Theory. References are provided.