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Biopsychology - Parkinson's Disease

I need assistance with discussing the current status of research and findings, future, growing edge research and theory on Parkinson's Disease. Include:

- an introduction and explanation about Parkinson's Disease
- summary of current findings
- report current new research
- ethical considerations researching Parkinson's Disease and gender and diversity issues
- future directions and how the findings may be applied to better human conditions

I need at least 10 references that are scholarly, reliable and in APA standard format.

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Parkinson's disease is a progressive disorder which causes tremors, rigidity, slowing of movement, tiredness, stiffness, and balance problems. Other side effects can be speech and memory as well as mood and usually get worse (1). This disease usually progresses very slowly and also makes those that suffer from Parkinson's look old, feel old and lose facial expression (1). The symptom of tremors is usually absent during sleep.

One might ask 'what causes Parkinson's disease?' There are a number of different things that are believed to contribute to Parkinson's disease. Parkinson's disease is caused by the progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons which shows itself through muscle rigidity and tremors (2). These neurons are in a region of the brain called the substantia nigra; however, symptoms do not usually show themselves until about 80% of the neurons have been lost (3). It has also been hypothesized that genetic and environmental factors are the cause of the degeneration of the dopaminergic neurons (1). Even though genetics are suggested to play a role in Parkinson's disease, only a small percentage of people affected have a parent or sibling who has the disease (1).

Because cellular damage is the main cause of Parkinson's disease, there are a number of environmental factors that cause cellular damage in the brain (3.). Recent studies show that lead exposure increases the risk of cognitive impairment and thus suggest that exposure in infancy and childhood may greatly increase the risk of Parkinson's disease later in life (3). Another study also shows that air pollution is also harmful to the brain and that those that live in highly polluted cities are more likely to suffer from inflammation and cellular damage, which can also contribute to Parkinson's disease later.

Even though there are a number of things that are considered to contribute to the cellular damage that may cause Parkinson's disease, there is still one thing that can help to prevent it. It seems that every where a person turns there is information on diet and ...

Solution Summary

Discusses current research findings on Parkinson's Disease, theory on Parkinson's Disease, and future directions of research on Parkinson's Disease.