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    Principle of Operant Conditioning

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    Explain the principles of operant conditioning. Clarify the differences among positive reinforcers, negative reinforcers,punishment and primary and secondary reinforcers. Give example of all.

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    Operant conditioning

    Question:
    Explain the principles of operant conditioning. Clarify the differences among positive reinforcers, negative reinforcers, punishment and primary and secondary reinforcers. Give example of all.

    Answer:
    Operant conditioning: A procedure in which there is a behavior-environment interaction that changes the probability of a behavior (or the frequency of a behavior) occurring due to a consequence that contingently follows such behavior. This will also change the function of an antecedent consequence (Baldwin & Baldwin, 2001).

    Operant conditioning is an elaboration of classical conditioning. Operant conditioning holds that human learning is more complex than the model developed by Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) and involves human intelligence and will operating (thus its name) on its environment rather than being a slave to stimuli. B.F. Skinner (1904-1990) elaborated on this concept by introducing the idea of consequences into the behaviorist formula of human learning. Pavlov's classical conditioning explained behavior strictly in terms of stimuli, demonstrating a causal relationship between stimuli and behavior. In Pavlov's model, humans responded to stimuli in specific, predictable ways.
    According to Skinner, however, behavior is seen as far more complex, allowing for the introduction of choice and free will. According to operant conditioning, the likelihood that a behavior will ...

    Solution Summary

    Principle of operant conditioning explained. Differences among positive reinforcers, negative reinforcers, punishment, primary and secondary reinforcers explained with example for each.

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