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Cognitive Processing

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1. What would happen if we were to use top-down processing only? Is it that we would experience only perceptual illusions; we would perceive only the individual features of objects; we would perceive only what we expect; OR we would see objects two-dimensionally?

2. In the figure below, the "13's" in the top and bottom rows are identical, but the one on top is perceived as a number while the one on the bottom as a letter. Why might this difference in perception occur?

3. Is it because of top-down processing effects; because we try to impose organization on top-down processes, because feature detection is a data-driven process, OR because we try to maintain a sense of constancy in perception?

4. What type of processing do we use in object recognition? Is it parallel processing only, serial processing only, bottom-up processing only, OR both serial and processing and parallel processing?

5. Which of the following lists exceeds the capacity of an average person's working memory? Is it BOATLOADDOCKROPELAND; MNOPQRSTUVWXYZABCDEF; MQTLNRAZPCDBLQNVUDSD; OR all 3?

6. Somewhere between
Her blue eyes and jeans
There's a heart that's been broken
Along with her dreams

These line from a Conway Twitty song are far easier to remember than a string of eight Ebbinghaus's 3-letter syllables. Why? Is it because there are 24 letters in the Ebbinghaus string but only 17 words in this part of the song ; the song is written down as 4 lines rather than as a complete sentence, with all words in a row and Ebbinghaus's syllables are not ; the song is meaningful, it rhymes, and it has a meter to it, and Ebbinghaus's syllables are not meaningful, do not rhyme, and do not have meter ; OR many Americans are quite familiar with Conway Twitty's songs, but not as many with Ebbinghaus's syllables?

7. The superiority of mnemonic systems over rote learning can be shown for which of the following? Is it material to be recalled immediately, material to be recalled after a few hours, material to be recalled the next day, OR all 3?

8. Which of the following methods would be most likely to show the effects of implicit retrieval? Is it the serial reproduction; repetition priming, elaborative rehearsal; OR trace consolidation?

9. Traditional tests of recall and recognition, such as those used in college courses, Assess procedural learning; depend upon elaborative rehearsal done at the time of studying; assess explicit learning; OR employ repetition priming?

10. Which of the following is a plausible partial explanation for childhood When memory fails amnesia? Is it changed retrieval cues; immaturity of some neural structures; poorly developed schemas for encoding information; OR all 3?

11. Which of the following is a major reason that many researchers doubt there is anything really special about "flashbulb memory"? Is it that a very few people say that they have experienced such memories; although people seem to have them, they are not very confident in their recall; it seems impossible in terms of what we know about encoding in the brain; OR it is usually very hard to validate the details people recall?

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Solution Summary

By addressing the questions, this solution examines dimensions of cognitive processing, top-down, data-driven, serial, parallel, and capacity of working memory.

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