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    Cognition, Memory & Biological Theories

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    1. Sally is driving her car and talking on her cell phone. Statistically, this behavior has been shown to be quite dangerous and contributes to many automobile accidents. In performing these two tasks simultaneously, Sally uses:
    ____a. conscious cognitive processes.
    ____b. mindless behavior
    _x__c. subconscious cognitive processes.
    ____d. nonconscious thought processes.

    2. When we try to reconstruct the past from our memory, it becomes obvious that memory is:
    _x__a. a passive process having little to do with imagination.
    ____b. accurate by the time a person reaches adulthood.
    ____c. constructive and difficult to test.
    ____d. selective and subject to confabulation.

    3. Facial expressions serve several functions. They reflect our internal feelings and communicate messages to others as a signaling function. In studying the facial expression of emotions, Paul Ekman found that people who fake or hide their feelings:
    ____a. have increased cortisone levels.
    _x__b. use a different set of facial muscles
    ____c. can only mimic primary emotions.
    ____d. can demonstrate emotion for a shorter period of time than they would an authentic emotional display.

    4. When we are trying neither to gain nor to lose weight, the ____ theory suggests that our body has a biological mechanism that keeps our weight within 10 percent in either direction.
    ____a. heritability
    ____b. genetic predisposition
    ____c. basal metabolism rate
    _x__d. set point

    5. According to Sigmund Freud, a person who becomes fixated at the anal stage of development may become:
    ____a. possessive and demanding
    ____b. clingy and dependent
    __x_c. either overly obsessive or messy and disorganized.
    ____d. neurotic and anxious

    6. Biological researchers in the realm of gender development have found that girls who are exposed to ___ prefer "boys' toys," such as cars, fire engines, and Lincoln logs.
    ____a. boys during critical periods of development
    __x_b. prenatal androgens in the womb
    ____c. excessive stress hormones.
    ____d. gender-reverse typing

    7. Hans Selye described the body's response to external stressors as a general adaptation syndrome. He proposed that:
    ____a. stress is unhealthy and wholly unproductive.
    ____b. some forms of stress do not trigger the alarm phase of physiological reaction.
    ____c. stress is avoidable, and therapy can help us eliminate it from our lives.
    _x__d. some sources of stress are productive and positive.

    8. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is descriptive of diagnostic categories, making it possible for:
    ____a. the American Psychological Association to track the statistical occurrence of disorders.
    ____b. clinicians to consult a single volume for a description of Norman human problems and serious mental disorders.
    _x__c. clinicians to agree about a disorders, so they can study and treat it.
    ____d. clinicians to label their clients' problems and more easily interpret their behaviors.

    9. Schizophrenia produces two kinds of symptoms - active (positive) or passive (negative). Examples that involve a loss of Normal traits would include conditions such as:
    ____a. emotional flatness, disorganized speech, and poor hygiene.
    ____b. hallucinations, emotional flatness, and delusions.
    ____c. emotional flatness, bizarre delusions, and depression.
    __x_d. social withdrawal, lack of motivation, and emotional flatness.

    10. In humanistic psychotherapy, the most crucial ingredient is the therapist's ability to:
    ____a. build the client's self-esteem.
    __x_b. have empathy.
    ____c. sympathize with the sufferer.
    ____d. respect the client.

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    Solution Summary

    This solution assists in a multiple-choice questions related to cognition, memory and biological mechanisms, diseases and theories (e.g. Freud, Maslow, etc.). References are provided.