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Theoretical Similarities and Differences

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Behavior theory, psychoanalytic theory, cognitive-behavioral theory, and person centered theory. For each theory, cover the following aspects:
- Goals of therapy
- Types of treatment
- Theoretical explanation of where substance use or abuse stems from
- Characteristics of the client that would be the best fit for this theory

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*Person-centered approach

The person-centered approach is focused on the significance and meaning in the individual's life. For example, the person is viewed as moving toward increased awareness and establishing trust in self. Carl Rogers is credited with being the first person to use this approach, thus he would be considered to be the key theorist. He emphasized dignity and self-worth that afforded the client in person-centered therapy have individual control (Rogers, 1951 as cited in Archer & McCarthy, 2007). Research was presented to summarize the "client-centered" approach (later renamed as person-centered) as psychotherapy to be regarded as an ethical phenomenon that involves a deep responsibility to provide services to others. In addition, to Rogers' emphasis on the concept of self, he stressed the "unconditional positive regard for others" [i.e., respecting the integrity and rights of others] (Truscott, 2010).

Goal of the Person-centered Approach

A primary goal of the person-centered therapist is that the human person has a natural tendency by which to discover his or her own potential. Another important goal is identity formation. Basic tenets in person-centered therapy embrace humanistic theories that include: (a) striving toward an inner goal, (b) acceptance as being significant in human life, and (c) the ability to change the course of one's life. The client and therapist's role was to be equally in a therapeutic relationship. Rogers offered strategies for helping to maintain a positive relationship with the client including: (a) encouragement, (b) good attention, (c) understanding, (d) summarizing, and reflecting, (e) creating a sense of story, (f) hearing and understanding the story. During the encouragement phase, the practitioner ensures the client that he or she understands the meaning associated with the problem. Good attention is provided by focusing on the client and maintain eye contact. As an effective listener, the practitioner/counselor creates a sense of understanding by reflecting on what has been said. Next, the counselor take the client's information, condense the information, and offer it back with to ensure what has been said has been heard and understood. Finally, he or she allows the client to express his or her feelings; and hears the story without voicing disapproval (Truscott, 2010).

Treatment from a substance perspective

A treatment process would entail a counseling approach based on the following core concepts: (a) self-actualizing tendency, (b) Organismic valuing process [born with the ability to make determinations], (limits to self-actualization [growth can be blocked], and (d) and the self and ideal self [we relate to the outside world] (Archer & McCarthy, 2007, p.101). As the research suggests, in order to have an effective relationship with the client, the practitioner/counselor must take steps to ensure that he or she maintains a trusting, helping relationship with the client. Rogers maintained that in the development of self, individuals would naturally develop a respect for the integrity and rights of others ...

Solution Summary

This solution discusses the similarities and differences between theoretical orientations