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Psychology Theory, Theorists and Concepts

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At twelve months of age, James is classified as securely attached. Which of the following behaviors in the Strange Situation would be most consistent with this classification?
a. Is it that James is moderately distressed when mother leaves him alone and pleased when she returns
b. James is unconcerned when his mother leaves and uninterested when she returns
c. James is very upset when his mother leaves and seems both relieved and angry when she returns
d. OR James is very upset when his mother leaves and he ignores her when she returns?

Compared to insecurely attached infants, securely attached infants are what?
a. Is it less likely to be popular in nursery school
b. Less likely to have anxiety disorders in childhood and adolescence
c. More likely to have divorced or separated parents
d. OR less likely to be outgoing in nursery school?

Fathers who are primary caregivers
a. Show the same style of interaction with their children as do mothers who are primary caregivers
b. Show the same style of interaction with their children as do fathers whoa re secondary caregivers
c. Are more likely to interact with their children through physical play than are fathers who are secondary caregivers
d. OR have children who are less strongly attached to them than do mothers who are primary caregivers?

Bowlby argued that disruption of a child's initial attachment would what?
a. Is it increase the child's ability to cope with problems throughout life
b. Have long-term negative consequences
c. Have no long-term effects
d. OR increase the child's independence and self-reliance?

Harlow found that monkeys that spend their first three months without human or animal contact and are then exposed to social contact
a. Show minimal long-term effects of the early isolation
b. Spend most of their time as adults rocking and biting themselves
c. Are sexually incompetent as adults
d. OR demonstrate very disturbed parental behavior?

Harlow's work with socially deprived monkeys suggests that early social relationships directly affect
a. The quality of later peer relationships
b. Later social and mating skills
c. The mature offspring's own maternal behavior
d. OR all 3?

The best therapy for the effects of social isolation in six-month old monkeys is
a. To allow them to attach to a warm terrycloth mother
b. Allow them to be with an adult female monkey who has lost her own infant
c. Allow them ample contact with normal young monkeys about three months older than they are
d. Put them in a cage with normal young monkeys about three months younger than they are
e. OR give them tranquilizers before introducing them to a normal group of young and adult monkeys?

Anthropological studies suggest that societies whose dominant means of livelihood is through hunting or fishing as opposed to agriculture stress which of the following values as they raise their children?
a. Is it self-reliance and initiative
b. Conformity and responsibility
c. Religiousness and respect for tradition
d. OR generosity and tolerance?

Charles wants his son to be kind and charitable. Which of the following ways of achieving this goal emphasizes principles of cognitive developmental theory?
a. Is it that Charles praises his son when he does something nice for someone else
b. Charles punishes his son when he is mean to someone else
c. Charles explains to his son why he should treat others well
d. OR Charles gives money or food to a homeless person while his son is with him?

Walter's parents strongly believe that Walter should make his own decisions, so they set very few rules about homework, bedtime, and household chores. Since they believe that freedom and responsibility are important, they patiently tolerate all of Walter' behavior, whether childish or mature. The parenting style adopted by Walter's parents is called what?
a. Is it autocratic
b. Permissive
c. Authoritative-reciprocal
d. OR indifferent?

Parents who are inflexible with their thinking and control their children's behavior largely through punishment are likely to produce children who are
a. Independent and self-reliant
b. Immature but cheerful
c. Withdrawn and hostile
d. OR impulsive but otherwise socially responsible?

The way parents treat their children is
a. Determined solely by the way the parents were treated as children
b. Is determined solely by the parents' socialization goals
c. Is shaped, to some extent, by the children themselves
d. OR determines how the children will develop?

Which principle state that a child will internalize a certain way of acting if there is some pressure put on him to act this way, but not enough to feel that he was forced?
a. Is it principal of minimal sufficiency
b. Principal of forced compliance
c. Principal of internalization
d. OR principal of socialization?

Empathy means
a. Behaving altruistically in order to gain approval
b. May be reflected in a newborn's tendency to cry in response to another infant's cry
c. Does not appear until about age eight
d. OR means helping another even without the possibility of reward?

According to Kohlberg's view of moral development, the earliest form of moral reasoning tends to be based on
a. Fears of punishment or the desire for personal gain
b. Moral reasoning based on personal principles is followed by moral reasoning based on social or cultural standards of acceptable behavior
c. Morality based on personal fears or desires develops later than moral reasoning based on social conventions
d. Or all 3?

There is a severe drought and there is a ban on outdoor watering. The Robinson's decide they will not water their new shrubs because the neighbors would disapprove. Their reasoning places them in which of Kohlberg's stages?
a. Is it preconventional
b. Conventional
c. Unconventional
d. OR postconventional?

Which of the following terms refers to one's inner sense of being male or female?
a. Is it gender role
b. Sexual orientation
c. Gender identity
d. OR sex typing?

In one study, mothers were introduced to the same sin-month-old baby, called either "Joey" or "Janie," and asked to play with the child. The results indicated that unlike fathers given the same task,
a. Mothers played the same way with the infant whether they thought it was male or female;
b. Mothers treated the baby more gently if they thought it was a girl than if they thought it was a boy;
c. Mothers, unlike fathers, were just as likely to give the infant a doll when they thought it was male as when they thought it was female
d. OR mothers, unlike fathers, quickly caught on to the deception and recognized the child's actual sex?

Which of the following statements is false?
a. Is it that evidence indicates that males are biologically predisposed to be more physically aggressive than females
b. Young primate males typically engage in more rough-and-tumble play than do young primate females
c. Social pressures probably amplify biologically based sex differences in aggression
d. OR girls are less aggressive than boys?

In PET scans and MRIs
a. Male and female brains are indistinguishable
b. Differ in regions involved in verbal tasks
c. Differ in regions involved in visuospatial tasks
d. OR BOTH differ in regions involved in verbal tasks AND differ in regions involved in visuospatial tasks?

Before the age of five or six, children typically fail to recognize
a. The permanent nature of gender
b. The different genders of their parents
c. The different social roles of the two sexes
d. OR their own gender?

Chromosomal females who are penatally exposed to high levels of androgens
a. Sometimes experience gradually changing gender identity
b. Are more likely than other girls to be tomboys
c. Have higher rates of lesbianism than other women
d. Or all 3?

Compared to typical heterosexual relationships, typical homosexual relationships
a. Are the same except for the sexes of those involved
b. Briefer
c. Less likely to include romantic love
d. OR less likely to include companionate love (a sense of trust and commitment)?

Studies of hormone levels in male homosexuals indicate that male homosexuality is the
a. Result of low levels of testosterone
b. Is the result of high levels of testosterone
c. Is the result of high levels of estrogen
d. OR cannot be said to be consistently related to hormone levels?

According to Erikson, the first and most basic of the psychosocial crises to be solved is
a. A trust versus mistrust
b. Intimacy versus isolation
c. Integrity versus stagnation identity versus intimacy
d. OR competence versus shame and doubt?

Body piercing in adolescents seems to be a way for adolescents to
a. Distinguish themselves from their parents
b. Is likely to be popular among adolescents for decades
c. Is inconsistent with Erikson's understanding of adolescents
d. OR all 3?

Erikson and other authors devote considerable attention to the "midlife transition." This transition involves
a. A reappraisal one's life and career
b. Redefinition of life purpose from personal to more social and altruistic goals
c. Turning away from more material interests to more philosophical and spiritual ones
d. OR renewed interest in the ideas and pursuits of one's adolescence and young childhood?

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