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Research Method Psychology practice quiz problems

4. A________ is a subset of the _________
A. population; sample
B. population; random sample
C. sample; population
D. none of the above

5. The first step in the research process is to
A. review the literature on your topic
B. develop a research plan
C. Find a problem or question to examine
D. consider the relevant theories

6. "Students who have been given extra credit." This statement best represents a (n)
A. theory
B. hypothesis
C. extraneous variable
D. problem

7. Which of the following components of the research process should be conducted first?
A. conducting the project
B. literature review
C. coming up with the hypothesis
D. analysis of research findings

8. The general plan for selecting participants, assigning participants to experimental conditions, controlling extraneous variables, and gathering data is known as the
A. Hypothesis
B. Theory
C. Research design
D. Literature review

9. Which of the following steps in the research process will often result in doing statistics?
A. Analysis of research findings
B. Decisions in terms of past research and theory
C. Theoretical considerations
D. Literature review

11. ________ refers to those situations where we look for one phenomenon
But find something else.
A. Validity
B. Reliability
C. Testability
D. Serendipity

12. Which of the following is NOT a systematic source of research ideas?
A. Theory
B. Everyday occurrences
C. Classroom lectures
D. Past research

13. Which of the following ways are recommended in your text for obtaining relevant publications?

A. Making photocopies from publications
B. Using interlibrary loan
C. request a reprint from the author
D. all of the above

14. Why was the Tuskegee syphilis project considered unethical?

A. Participants were not told the real purpose of the study
B. There were excessive risks for the participants
C. Participants did not have the right to discontinue participation
D. All of the above

15. The Milgram obedience experiments had ethical problems because

A. Milgram failed to debrief his participants.
B. The project was not conducted by scientifically qualified personnel
C. The participants were under extreme emotional distress
D. The participants did not know they were in a study

16. Which ethical guidelines does deception violate?

A. full debriefing
B. informed consent
C. gaining IRB approval
D. all of the above

17. Which of the following best describes the APA guideline regarding inducements for research participation?

A. It is unethical to pay people to participate in research.
B. Researchers should avoid excessive inducements to participate in research
C. Research participation should be a course requirement for college students in introductory psychology classes.
D. Researchers cannot under any circumstances offer professional services as an inducement for research participation.

19. _________ refers to the extent to which a qualitative research report is accurate and unbiased.
A. Credibility
B. Dependability
C. Confirmability
D. Transferability

20. Dependability in qualitative research is analogous to_________ in quantitative research.
A. external validity
B. internal validity
C. construct validity
D. reliability

21. One strength of the case study method is that
A. researchers can understand the causes of behavior
B. the results exhibit high generalizability
C. the research often leads to ideas for future research
D. all of the above are strengths of the case study method

22. with archival research

A. we can make statements about causality under most circumstances
B. we can make statements about causality when the researcher has exhibited tight control over the variables.
C. we can make statements about causality when the researcher has examined only one variable instead of several.

24. "As the amount of exercising decreases weight increases." This statement represents a ________ correlation.

A. Zero
B. Positive
C. Negative
D. Curvilinear

25. Control refers to

A. directly manipulating an independent variable in a research study.
B. managing unwanted variables that could influence the results of a research project.
C. both (a) and (b)
D. none of the above

28. Why is it important to use operational definitions in research?

A. it allows extraneous variables to be controlled
B. it allows other researchers to replicate the research
C. it is the only way to randomly assign participants to conditions
D. it is allows nuisance variables to be controlled.

29. Why are extraneous variables problematic?

A. the operational definitions of extraneous variables are poor
B. the extraneous variables are purposely manipulated by the researcher
C. extraneous variables are usually measured on a Likert scale
D. the researcher does not know if the results are due to the independent variable or to the extraneous variables.

30. Experimenter expectancies usually result in participants

A. behaving in a manner opposite of experimenter expectations
B. behaving in a manner consistent with experimenter expectations
C. behaving in a natural way
D. not understanding the directions of the experimenter

31. Dickson et al. (2001) did not tell their participants that they were studying racial stereotypes because they were worried about

A. experimenter expectancies
B. demand characteristics
C. ethnocentrism
D. sampling issues

32. Research aimed at determining the universality of research results is known as ________ research

A. correlational
B .experimental
C. archival
D. cross-cultural

33. A culture-specific finding is known as a (n)

A. emic
B. etic
C. response set
D. precedent

34. Joy scored a 98% on her last Research Methods exam. Based on the concept of statistical regression we would predict that her score on the next exam will be

A. 98%
B. a little bit lower than a 98%
C. 70%
D. 58%

35. Jerry is concerned about whether his independent variable is the only possible explanation for the results of his experiment. Jerry is concerned about

A. external validity
B. internal validity
C. reliability
D. convenience sampling

36. ________ statistics summarize numbers and__________ statistics determine whether the results are significant.

A. Descriptive; inferential
B. Inferential; descriptive
C. Measurements; inferential
D. Descriptive; measurement

37. Measures of __________ refer to the typical or representative score.

A. variability
B. central tendency
C. inferential statistics
D. type I errors

40. Why is it important to understand scales of measurement?

A. the scale of measurement for the dependent variable determines the kind of statistical test that can be conducted.
B. scales of measurement are integral for inferential statistics (but not necessarily descriptive statistics)
C. scales of measurement are integral for descriptive statistics (but not necessarily inferential statistics)
D. researchers can only analyze data on the interval and ratio levels of measurement.

41. An experiment in which the experimenter directly manipulates the IV is known as a (n)

A. ex post facto research design
B. participant observation
C. correlational research design
D. true experiment

42. You should use an independent samples t test when

A. you have a two-group design you used matched pairs and your DV is measured on an interval or ratio scale of measurement
B. you have a two-group design you randomly assigned your participants and your DV is measured on a nominal or ordinal scale of measurement
C. you have a three-group design you randomly assigned your participants and your DV is measured on an interval or ratio scale of measurement
D. you have a two-group design you randomly assigned your participants and your DV is measured on an interval or ratio scale of measurement.

43. Suppose you know you would like to conduct a one-IV experiment. What is the second question that you need to answer?

A. how many levels of the IV will I use?
B. will I conduct an experiment or a correlational study?
C. will I conduct a confounded experiment or a true experiment?
D. all of the above

44. A statistical test used to analyze data from an experiment with one independent variable that has three or more groups is known as a

A. two-factor ANOVA
B. t-test
C. one-way ANOVA
D. z-test

47. If participants change over time in an experiment which threat to internal validity is potentially operating?

A. Selection
B. Maturation
C. Instrumentation
D. Diffusion of treatments

48. Why do researchers choose to use quasi-experimental designs?

A. random assignments may not be possible when studying participants from certain groups
B. random assignments may not be possible because of expense or time difficulties
C. random assignment may not be ethical in some situations
D. all of the above

49. Which is better?

A. the survey was conducted in a controlled setting
B. we conducted the survey in a controlled setting

50. Which is correct?

A. the data indicate that Terrence was correct.
B. the data indicates that Terrence was correct.

Solution Preview

4. A________ is a subset of the _________
A. population; sample
B. population; random sample
***C. sample; population
D. none of the above

Coaching tips: Sample is part of the population

5. The first step in the research process is to
A. review the literature on your topic
B. develop a research plan
***C. Find a problem or question to examine
D. consider the relevant theories

Coaching tips: First you have a question or problem, then you consider the theories, research what others have done and then develop a research plan.

6. "Students who have been given extra credit." This statement best represents a (n)
A. theory
***B. hypothesis
C. extraneous variable
D. problem

Coaching tips: This is the beginning of a prediction...those given extra credit will do better than those not given extra credit....

7. Which of the following components of the research process should be conducted first?
A. conducting the project
***B. literature review
C. coming up with the hypothesis
D. analysis of research findings

Coaching tips: First you see what others have found and base your hypothesis on what is currently known about the problem or question.

8. The general plan for selecting participants, assigning participants to experimental conditions, controlling extraneous variables, and gathering data is known as the
A. Hypothesis
B. Theory
***C. Research design
D. Literature review

Coaching tips: The research design is how you plan to carry out the work, how to select the sample, materials to use, data to collect, analysis to be performed and how the outcomes will be measured.

9. Which of the following steps in the research process will often result in doing statistics?
**A. Analysis of research findings
B. Decisions in terms of past research and theory
C. Theoretical considerations
D. Literature review

Coaching tips: For any quantitative studies, this is where the outcome measures are tested.

11. ________ refers to those situations where we look for one phenomenon
But find something else.
***A. Validity
B. Reliability
C. Testability
D. Serendipity

Coaching tips: Validity is whether you are really capturing what you think you are capturing.

12. Which of the following is NOT a systematic source of research ideas?
A. Theory
B. Everyday occurrences
***C. Classroom lectures
D. Past research

Coaching tips: Lecture typically summarize existing knowledge. Theory can lead to questions, wanting to know WHY people do what they do everyday can lead to questions and past research can lead to what-if or would-it-work-on-others type questions.

13. Which of the following ways are recommended in your text for obtaining relevant publications?

A. Making photocopies from publications
B. Using interlibrary loan
C. request a reprint from the author
***D. all of the above

Coaching tips: Downloading from databases too!

14. Why was the Tuskegee syphilis project considered unethical?

A. Participants were not told the real purpose of the study
B. There were excessive risks for the participants
C. Participants did not have the right to discontinue participation
***D. All of the above

Coaching tips: They all thought they were getting treated and they were not. They were told that had bad blood and never knew about their illness and that it was curable.

15. The Milgram obedience experiments had ethical problems because

A. Milgram failed to debrief his participants.
B. The project was not conducted by scientifically qualified personnel
***C. The participants were under extreme emotional ...

Solution Summary

Your tutorial for each question gives you instructional tips to help you understand each selection.

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