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first-order and second-order cybernetics

1. Compare and contrast first-order and second-order cybernetics, citing the qualities and characteristics of each.
2. Describe an interaction you have observed, from a first-order perspective. Then, describe it from a second-order perspective, including yourself in the description, this time. For example:
* First-order: A mom is watching her two children. The older child hits the younger one, to obtain a toy. The younger child runs, and is chased by the first child.
* Second-order: We were having breakfast and there was a lot of tension between the kids at the table. My older child was hitting the younger one, so I corrected him, and told the younger child to give the toy to his sibling. He ran, instead, as did the older one--and now I am running after both of them!

Solution Preview

The term "cybernetics" is derived from Greek word meaning "the art of steering" and the Latin word as "governor". Cybernetics is having a goal and taking some type of action to achieve that goal. You know when you achieved your goal when you receive feedback. The beginning of the process of cybernetics is a concept in society that has been around since Plato used it referring to the government. During modern times this term was used by Norbert Wiener who wrote the book called "Cybernetics" published in 1948. The book discussed control and communications in animals and machines which was the sub title in the book. Control connected actions that take place in hope of achieving goals. Communication is the connection of information flow between animals and the environment. The point Weiner tried to make in the book was that effective action required ...

Solution Summary

This solution contextualizes first-order and second-order cybernetics. References are also provided to further validate the findings.