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    In classical or "orthodox" psychoanalysis, Freud would invite his clients (called "analysands") to lie down on a couch and talk freely about anything that came to mind, as they self-reflected (the process of free association). All along, Freud would be seated on a chair behind the client, out of the client's sight (yet able to see the client's body language), and only interject verbally from time to time, in order to encourage further client self-exploration. Nowadays, many psychoanalytically oriented counsellors prefer to dialogue with their clients face to face. What do you think is gained and what is lost in the face-to-face format? Do you think that the basic tools of psychoanalysis identified by Ikonen (2002) become more effective or less effective in the face-to-face interaction?

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    What is gained in the face-to-face format of psychoanalysis, compared to the classic Freud version of psychoanalysis is more respect is paid to the client. Meeting someone face-to-face is establishing a relationship ...

    Solution Summary

    The face-to-face format is assessed.