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    Disorder during pregnancy

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    I found a topic on the internet that I am interested in and I need help to summarize it so I will get get a focused idea. The topic is:

    "Psychiatric disorders during pregnancy" by Stephanie Zisook, M.D., and Vivien K.Burt, M.D. It is available on the website.

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    https://brainmass.com/psychology/abnormal-psychology/disorder-during-pregnancy-57209

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    Psychology, Human Adjustment
    Year 2
    disorder during pregnancy
    i found a topic on the internet that i am interested in and i need you to summarize it so i will get get a focused idea. the topic is: "psychiatric disorders during pregnancy" by Stephanie Zisook, M.D., and Vivien K.Burt, M.D. it is available on the website (?)
    Hi,
    Interesting and somewhat disturbing, topic, indeed. I managed to located the article by Zisook and Burk from the on-line website without any trouble, and which I uploaded below. As I read the article, I provided a summary after each section, which is highlighted in red. I also highlighted (bolded in black and purple) certain parts of the article (names of drugs and the effects in the treatment section, for example) for easy gleaning of the main points. First, though, I provide a very brief summary below:
    Briefly, the authors investigated the prevalence and risk factors associated with psychiatric disorders during pregnancy. Psychiatric disorders continue into pregnancy and, although pregnancy does not cause mental illness, it is just as prevalent in pregnancy as it is in non-pregnancy. Ultimately, the pregnant woman (along with her physician, etc.) has to decide on the best treatment option. All medications have the potential to harm the unborn child, especially when administered in the first trimester. However, a discontinuation of drugs also increases the risk of relapse, postpartum depression and the symptoms associated with these disorders (i.e., poor hygiene, nutrition, alcohol abuse, etc.), which have an indirect negative effect on the fetus (e.g., low birth rate, smaller head, etc.). However, with psychotherapy and a good support system in place, these are somewhat preventable (e.g., having a good support system who assures good nutrition and encourages good hygiene, etc.). However, drug therapy can have lasting harmful effects on the unborn child (birth defects, oral cleft, spina bifida, etc.), and these effects cannot be controlled for or prevented; and a child carries these as a life sentence.
    This is a very brief summary, so let's look at my summaries below, which are more in-depth:

    No files attached.
    Bid Credits: 5 Deadline: November 20, 2005, 8:07 pm EST

    Psychiatric Disorders During Pregnancy
    by Stephanie Zisook, M.D., and Vivien K. Burt, M.D., Ph.D.
    Psychiatric Times January 2003 Vol. XX Issue 1
    ________________________________________
    The authors investigated the prevalence and risk factors associated with psychiatric disorders during pregnancy.
    Despite the widespread, long-standing notion that pregnancy is a time of happiness and emotional well-being, accumulating evidence suggests that pregnancy does not protect women from mental illness. Like their nonpregnant counterparts, pregnant women experience new onset and recurrent mood, anxiety and psychotic disorders. For example, like other women, as much as 20% of pregnant women experience minor or major depression (Gotlib et al., 1989; O'Hara, 1986). Moreover, premature discontinuation of antidepressants during pregnancy can precipitate a relapse of depressive symptoms (Nonacs and Cohen, 2002). Like major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder (BD) affects pregnant women and poses substantial risk to the mother and fetus. Past history of BD tends to predict the course of illness during pregnancy. A study of recurrently ill women with BD who discontinued lithium (Eskalith, Lithobid) close to the time of conception suggested that the rate of relapse for pregnant women with BD is similar to the rate of relapse for nonpregnant, age-matched women with BD (Viguera et al., 2000). The study also indicated that the risk for postpartum decompensation is substantially increased even when lithium discontinuation is not associated with antepartum relapse. The courses of schizophrenia, panic disorder and eating disorders vary--some women exhibit no change in symptoms, while some improve and others decompensate (Franko et al., 2001; McNeil et al., 1984; Wisner et al., 1996). Obsessive-compulsive disorder tends to worsen during pregnancy (Buttolph and Holland, 1990). Although there are no published studies on the course of generalized anxiety disorder in pregnancy, clinical experience suggests that pregnancy can exacerbate tension, worry and ruminations.
    Although pregnancy doesn't cause mental illness, it does not protect women either. In other words, when compared to their non-pregnant counterparts, they are both at risk for new onset and recurrent mood, anxiety and psychotic disorders. There is, however, an additional risk factor for pregnant women, associated with the premature discontinuation of antidepressants which puts pregnant women at a higher risk for relapse of depressive symptoms and bipolar (BD) (e.g., (i.e., for BD - relapse and increased occurrence of postpartum decompensation even when lithium is not associated with antipartum relapse).
    In contrast, the courses of schizophrenia, panic disorder and eating disorders vary for pregnant women - some exhibiting no change in symptoms, while some improve and others decompensate. Research suggests that the symptoms of OCD worsen and the symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder in pregnancy, however, get worse.
    Symptomatic psychiatric illnesses have been associated with poor prenatal care, inadequate nutrition, impulsive behaviors, substance abuse and increased incidences of postpartum depression. Depression during pregnancy has been associated with preterm birth, smaller head circumferences, and lower birth weights and Apgar scores (Nonacs and Cohen, 2002).
    The fetus is indirectly put at risk through the symptoms associated with psychiatric disorders (e.g, poor prenatal care, inadequate nutrition, impulsive ...

    Solution Summary

    This solution helps to summarize an article on the topic of "disorder during pregnancy" (Zisook & Burt, n.d.).

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