Describe the concept of learning.
Distinguish between learning and performance.
Compare and contrast the conceptual approaches to the study of learning.
Thank you for posting this question to Brainmass.
DESCRIBE THE CONCEPT OF LEARNING:
The first question looks at the term of "learning" and asks you to discuss the concept of learning. When thinking about this term "learning", you must be able to explain that the concept is really the ideology of what learning is. According to Alexander, Schallert, and Reynolds (2009), learning is a process of change. They discuss learning as being many different concepts, depending on the context in which one is experiencing the learning in. For example...they provide the following nine principles or concepts of learning:
1. Principle 1 Learning is change
2. Principle 2 Learning is inevitable, essential, and ubiquitous
3. Principle 3 Learning can be resisted
4. Principle 4 Learning may be disadvantageous
5. Principle 5 Learning can be tacit and incidental as well
as conscious and intentional
6. Principle 6 Learning is framed by our humanness
7. Principle 7 Learning refers to both a process and a product
8. Principle 8 Learning is different at different points in time
9. Principle 9 Learning is interactional
Also, when one is talking about learning in relation to typical functioning individuals as opposed to developmentally challenged individuals, the principles (concepts) of learning are the same. For example, an individual that is developmentally challenged may be attempting to learn basic life skills including how to tie their shoes, how to make a peanut and butter sandwich, how to put on their clothes, and so on. We refer to these as skills, but they also involve concepts of learning how to create change and are interactional. Learning does not have to be a task either. Learning can include the concept of expanding knowledge to further understand topics, exploring alternatives, and gaining access to higher levels of existential meaning. Whatever form the learning is taking place in, the concept behind learning is derived from the process of change.
DISTINGUISH BETWEEN LEARNING AND PERFORMANCE:
When you are asked about this next question, I want to refer you to an article that ...
This solution clarifies differences between learning and performance. References are also listed to promote research.