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Child growth and development

Q 1: Please discuss factors that can lead to brain damage in the young child.

Q 2: Please discuss and distinguish between gross and fine motor skills, and discuss the development of of each during the play years.

Q 3: Describe and discuss the major characteristics of preoperational thought, according to Piaget.

Q 4: Describe Vygotsky's view of the role of language in cognitive growth.

Q 5: Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of bilingualism at an early age.

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RESPONSE:

Q 1: Please discuss factors that can lead to brain damage in the young child.

A young child may be born with a brain defect or deprived from oxygen during a complicated childbirth. Or, an injury can also cause brain damage in a young child, such as falling out of a crib onto their head or banging their head on a hard surface, like falling on cement or even a wood surface if the fall is hard enough and involved a hit to the head. Some serious infections can also cause brain damage. Toxic substances, when ingested can also cause neurological problems, and brain damage in children. The only time the body will sustain damage due to a high temperature, however, is when the body temperature goes over 107.6 degrees. (http://coldflu.about.com/od/othercommonillnesses/f/feverbraindamag.htm)

Q 2: Please discuss and distinguish between gross and fine motor skills, and discuss the development of each during the play years.

Motor development involves gross and motor skills. Let' slook at them now from the age 0f 2 to 7 years.

A. Months Twenty-Four-Thirty-Six (2-3 years old)

Gross motor skills include:
? Hops on one foot
? Walks up stairs alternating feet
? Walks down stairs alternating feet
? Walks backward
? Balances on one foot briefly
? Throws overhand at a target
? Catches a rolled ball
? Throws a small ball 2 feet
? Rides a tricycle using pedals

Fine motor skills include:
? Turns pages one at a time
? Builds a 9 block tower
? Strings small ½ inch beads
? Unscrews lid of a jar
? Imitates horizontal line, cross, circle
? Holds pencil in hand instead of fist
? Makes snips with scissors
? Unbuttons
? Places pegs in a pegboard

B. Months Thirty-Six-Forty-Eight(3-4 years old):

Gross motor skills include:
? Throws ball overhand with accuracy
? Catches large ball from 5 feet
? Hops on one foot 2 or more times
? Balances on one foot briefly

Fine motor skills include:
? Builds 9 block tower
? Cuts with scissors
? Holds pencil like an adult(static)
? Copies a circle/cross

C. Months Forty-Eight-Sixty (4-5 years old):

Gross motor skills include:
? Catches ball with hands only
? Bounces and catches a ball
? Throws a ball in the air and catches
? Balance on one foot for 4-5 seconds
? Walks on a line heel to toe

Fine motor skills include:
? Screws together a threaded object
? Tripod grasp on a pencil
? Builds 10 block tower
? Cuts fairly accurately with scissors

D. Month Sixty-Seventy-Two (5-6 years old):

Gross motor skills include:
? Jumps rope by self
? Kicks a rolling ball
? Rides a bicycle
? Dribbles a ball
? Throws a ball with good accuracy

Fine motor skills include:
? Copies triangle/square
? Cuts on a straight/curved line
? Ties shoes/Zips
? Completes a lacing card
? Attempts to stay in lines when coloring

E. Month Seventy-Two-Eighty-Four (6-7 years old):

? Copies diamond/rectangle
? Copies printed letters
? Ties a bow
? Draws a line with a ruler
? Dynamic tripod grasp on pencil (http://74.125.93.132/search?q=cache:q4oPdbHIT-gJ:home.att.net/~childsplay/handouts/CP-Ages_and_stagesguide.doc+Child%E2%80%99s+Play+Clinic-2003-Rae+Suba+OTR/L+Do+not+reproduce+without+permission+Stages+of+Gross+%26+Fine+Motor+Skill+Development:&cd=1&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=ca&client=firefox-a)

Other areas of development involve physical, social-emotional and cognitive development.

? Physical development. In these years, a child becomes stronger and starts to look longer and leaner. Physical growth is slower than in the first 2 years of life, but the outward changes can be dramatic. From age 5 to 7, physical development continues gradually, getting their permanent teeth during this stage.

? Cognitive development. From age to ...

Solution Summary

By addressing the question comprehensively, this solution addresses aspects of child growth and development. References are provided.

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