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Mineral Salts Chemical Explanation

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What is the chemical explanation as to why salts of water borne minerals scale on the inside of water piping, specifically carbon steel or stainless steel piping?

I know that more alkaline pH will produce many calcium, aluminum, iron, sodium, and magnesium salts in water systems.

But is there a particular pH range in which one of these mineral salts will be more prevalent than another? And what exactly is the mechanism that physically causes the scale to actually build-up and attach to the inside of a pipe? Is the some type of electro-potential difference kind of scenario.? Would aluminum salts tend to scale more so thatn calcium or magnesium salts?

I hope you can provide me a good detailed explanation ---- thank you so very much in advance. I want to learn and know as much as I can on this subject.



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Scaling introduction
All sources of natural water contain concentrations of dissolved mineral salts, primarily based on the bicarbonates of metals such as calcium, magnesium and iron bicarbonates. Within a stainless steel tank or piping system, at increased temperature these bicarbonates readily decompose and disproportionate into their respective calcium, magnesium and iron carbonate salts. These carbonate salts are sparingly soluble in water, even at increased temperature, when compared to the bicarbonates.
As these carbonates excess carbonates form, precipitation occurs which subsequently become hard, rigid deposits. Mineral deposition primarily occurs on heat transfer surfaces in a system (but can occur elsewhere). These depositions act as insulators, lowering the heat transfer coefficient across the system, which consequently reduces the heat transfer capability of the material in question. This can lead to significantly increased fuel consumption and fuel costs and frequent maintenance costs - the effective insulating properties of these scale deposits ultimately result in metal surfaces experiencing excessive temperatures, causing them to crack, blister, or fracture. In less controlled and maintained cases, complete system failure can occur. Such mineral deposits are therefore a serious concern in a number of industries and novel technologies for inhibiting or clearing scale are constantly under investment. Damages and efficiency losses, as a result of scaling, especially with reference to piping infrastructure systems (typically stainless steel or analogous alloys) can be the source of major financial losses for a large number of industries worldwide.
Metal Salts in Water
• The key factors here are temperature and solubility
The temperature at which the water in a system is maintained directly influences how well different salts dissolve and how long they can stay dissolved. Some salts are more soluble at higher temperatures whereas others are more soluble at lower temperatures. Other salts can remain dissolved while the water is at a relatively lower ...

Solution Summary

The expert determines the chemical explanation as to why salts of water borne minerals scale on the inside of water piping specifically carbon steel or stainless steel piping.

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Natural Sciences Study Guide

1. Which of the following can be considered a definition of "theory?"
a. A theory can be an explanation of scientific laws.
b. A theory is an integrated explanation of numerous hypotheses, each supported by a large body of observations and experiments.
c. A theory is a condensation and simplification of much data that previously appeared unrelated.
d. All of the above.

2. What is the correct sequence of steps in the scientific method?
I. State a problem
II. Develop a hypothesis
III. Share results with other scientists
IV. Analyze and interpret data
V. Design and perform experiment to test hypothesis
a. 1-2-3-4-5
b. 5-3-2-1-4
c. 1-2-5-4-3
d. 5-1-2-4-3

3. Identify that type of radiation that has the highest energy.
a. Radio waves
b. Gamma rays
c. Ultraviolet waves
d. Microwaves

4. In Europe, alternating current vibrates to and fro 50 cycles in 1 second. The frequency of these vibrations is _______________.
a. 50 Hz
b. 1/50 Hz
c. 120 volts
d. 240 volts

5. When an atom forms an anion, it ___________.
a. Loses one or more electrons
b. Gains one or more electrons
c. Loses one or more protons
d. Gains one or more protons

6. When a liquid changes phase to a gas, it ___________.
a. Absorbs energy
b. Releases energy
c. Neither absorbs or releases energy
d. Freezes

7. The volume of a submerged body is equal to the ______of the fluid displaced.
a. Weight
b. Volume
c. Density
d. Buoyancy

8. The speed of a satellite in an elliptical orbit __________________.
a. Remains constant
b. Acts at right angles to its motion
c. Varies
d. All of these

9. _____ rocks form from existing rocks.
a. Igneous
b. Metamorphic
c. Sedimentary
d. All

10. Most of the Earth's fresh water is located in ________.
a. Polar icecaps and glaciers
b. The atmosphere
c. Rivers, lakes and streams
d. Groundwater

11. The following are entities or phenomena found in physics, chemistry, earth sciences and astronomy. Which is smallest in size?
a. Spiral galaxy
b. A hurricane
c. An atom
d. The solar system

12. Air is classified as ____________.
a. An element
b. A compound
c. A homogeneous mixture
d. A heterogeneous mixture

13. The following are entities or phenomena found in physics, chemistry, earth sciences, and astronomy. Which is largest in size?
a. A spiral galaxy
b. A hurricane
c. An atom
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14. If an atom has 18 electrons 20 neutrons, and 19 protons, what is its mass number?
a. 19
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15. Identify the correct statement.
a. Heat flows from a lower temperature to a higher temperature.
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c. Electricity flows from a lower potential to a higher potential.
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a. Heating
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a. 50%
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b. The sun
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19. Ionic bonding would be found in which of the following compounds?
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c. The reaction depletes the atmosphere of carbon dioxide.
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21. Periods on the periodic table list elements __________.
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b. With different chemical properties
c. With the same number of electrons
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22. Which is not a specific branch of the physical sciences?
a. Astronomy
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b. The same of lead and the large man will have the same density.
c. The sample of lead and the large man will have different volumes.
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b. The Fahrenheit degree is 9/5ths as large as the Celsius degree
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c. Light waves require no medium for transmission.
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a. Sun
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b. Dry ice, solid carbon dioxide, undergoing sublimation
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b. Slow down a chemical reaction
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