New York City is traveling around at a tangential speed of about 353 m/s (i.e., 790 mi/h) as the Earth spins. Assuming the planet is a sphere of radius 6371 km, how long is the perpendicular from the city to the spin axis? Compute the city's latitude (i.e., the angle measured above or below the equator).
Note 1. The radius, r, of the circle traveled by New York City, NYC, is the distance from NYC to the spin axis.
Note 2. The distance r, at latitude angle L, with the earth as a sphere of radius ...
This solution includes four steps of calculations and explanation.