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Philosophical Arguments For Proof of Existence

One: Recount Descartes' argument (found in Meditation II) which culminates in the famous conclusion â??I think, therefore I am.â? How, exactly, does Descartes believe that I can absolutely know that I exist? And what can I say with certainty about myself once I know that I exist?

Two: Recount Descartes' argument (in Meditation III and IV) regarding the existence and nature of God. How is it, Descartes believes, that we can really know that God exists? And, once God is known to exist, what is it that Descartes believes we can reliably say about Him?

Three: Describe Locke's theory of representative government, and how it relates to his views of toleration. How is it that Locke's empiricism grounds his political philosophy?

Four: Describe Hume's theory of mitigated skepticism, and how he believes we cannot achieve intellectual certainty. Nonetheless, how is it that Hume accounts for morality or ethics?

Solution Preview

Descartes' argument, which culminates in the famous conclusion I think, therefore I am, is based on the premise that human thought exists, and an individual must therefore exist as well. In essence, Descartes believes that I can absolutely know that I exist because thought exists, or more aptly, my thought exists, and due to the fact that my thoughts are inseparable from me, I must exist as well. Descartes' thoughts and philosophy in regards to existence, also answer the question of what can I say with certainty about myself once I know I exist. According to Descartes' philosophy about existence, one thing that I can say with certainty about myself once I know I exist, is that I am a thinking vessel or thing, due to the fact that it takes thought or thinking to be able to conceive any skepticism in regards to ...

Solution Summary

The philosophical arguments for proof of existence is examined. Empiricism grounds political philosophy is given.

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