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Beliefs of Human Nature and the Universe

I am working on a huge paper in which I am including several of these thoughts. I want to make sure I have everything covered. If you can help me with the following I would greatly appreciate it.

QUESTIONS:

Confucianism: Islam: Hinduism (Upanishad): Martyr Ayatullah Murtada Mutahhari

1. Confucianism: three beliefs about Confucianism that the others do not have.

2. Hinduism: three beliefs about human nature differing from the others.

Upanishad: The Upanishad presents an extremely positive view of human nature as capable of an inner spiritual self-transformation, Human nature as described in the Upanishad is "placing an understanding of human beings in relation to knowledge". Humans attain different levels of knowledge with the Upanishad being the highest form of knowledge about how humans respond and behave in human nature.

4. Islam: three unique beliefs of Islam that the other don't have.

5. Man and the Universe: Martyr Ayatullah Murtada Mutahhari. What were his ideas about human nature and how do they differ from the

Solution Preview

Interesting questions. I attached an informative article as well. Let's take a closer look.

1. Confucianism: three beliefs about Confucianism that the others do not have.

1). Confucianism deals with a belief in social interaction, or humanism, which is unique for a religion.

For example, Confucius (551 - 479 BC) believed that human beings contained the source of values needed to improve themselves, which in turn would improve society.http://www.wckfc.com/article/ANALECT/analect.htm In fact, it is more a system of social and ethical values than a fixed religion, It is sometimes referred to as a quasi-religion. Confucianism promotes personal virtue for the wider benefit of the community. Sincerity, benevolence, loyalty and propriety are the key values outlined in the five scriptures:
? Shu King - historical documents
? Shih King - ancient poems
? Li Ching - rites and ancient ceremonies
? I Ching - book of changes
? Ch'un Chi'u - spring and autumn.

2). Filial piety or respect for the family is placed above all other virtues, and parents and teachers, rather than ordained religious figures, take on the role of spiritual guides. Filial piety (hsiao) is the root of where, jen first develops. The Chinese term jen can be translated as human-heartedness, humanity, virtue, benevolence, morality, etc. http://www.wckfc.com/article/ANALECT/analect.htm

3). Confucianism has quite particular and unique ceremonies.

For example, it places great importance on ritual and celebrates the four key stages in life - birth, maturity, marriage and death - with quite particular ceremonies unique to Confucianism. http://www.channel4.com/culture/microsites/C/can_you_believe_it/religion/r-confu.html

For example, after their parents died, people would stay at the side of the graves for the first three years in accordance with Confucian teachings on filial duties. At funerals, however, Buddhist or Taoist monks were invited to chant prayers to bless the dead. http://www.humanrights.cn/zt/magazine/200402004826101024.htm

2. Hinduism: three beliefs about human nature differing from the others.

Upanishads: The Upanishads presents an extremely positive view of human nature as capable of an inner spiritual self-transformation. Human nature as described in the Upanishad is "placing an understanding of human beings in relation to knowledge". Humans attain different levels of knowledge with the Upanishad being the highest ...

Solution Summary

This solution responds to the questions related to Confucianism, Islam, Hinduism (Upanishad) and Martyr Ayatullah Murtada Mutahhari regarding their views on human nature and how they differ. Supplemented with one article from an Islamic perspective.

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