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# Causal Hypothesis Experiment Analysis

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Please review my responses (and give suggestions)
Using the following question,

QUESTION: Learning music can help children do better at math. Gordon Shaw of the University of California, Irvine, and Frances Rauscher at the University of Wisconsin compared three groups of second-graders: 26 received piano instruction plus practice with a math videogame, 29 received extra English lessons plus the game, and 28 got no special lessons. After four months the piano kids scored 15 to 41 % higher on a test of ratios and fractions than the other participants.

INVESTIGATIONS:
a. Identify the causal hypothesis at issue-Learning music can help children do better at math.
b. Identify what kind of investigation it is-Controlled Cause-to-Effect Experiments
c. Describe the control and experimental groups-control group where the 28 second graders that did not recieve piano instruction. Experimental group were the 26 second graders that did receive piano instruction
d. State the difference in effect between control and experimental groups-The difference is the % increase in the math scores
e. Identify any problems in either the investigation or in the report of it, including but not necessarily limited to uncontrolled variables.-there is not enough information about how much time children recieved in the uncontrolled variables, practice with a math video game.
f.State the conclusion warranted by the report._Providing children with additional musical and math tutoring increases math abilities.

https://brainmass.com/philosophy/logic-critical-thinking/causal-hypothesis-experiment-analysis-276669

#### Solution Preview

Dear Student,
This solution is a review and expansion of your work. So far you have identified things well but what we need here are extra details. Okay, so let's start with the Statement and analyse it:

"Learning music can help children do better at math. Gordon Shaw of the University of California, Irvine, and Frances Rauscher at the University of Wisconsin compared three groups of second-graders: 26 received piano instruction plus practice with a math videogame, 29 received extra English lessons plus the game, and 28 got no special lessons. After four months the piano kids scored 15 to 41 % higher on a test of ratios and fractions than the other participants. "

In a nutshell the statement alleges that the study conducted by Shaw & Rauscher show that children who study music do better in math. Their evidence is via their controlled social experiment: 26 received piano instruction plus practice with a math videogame, 29 received extra English lessons plus the game, and 28 got no special lessons - after 4 months studies show that kids who ...

#### Solution Summary

The solution provides a sample analysis of a behavior alteration experiment's methods and results using the principle of cause and effect. Corrections are made to sample student work on the experiment. References are provided for further expansion.

\$2.19

## Experimentation Critique.

Experimentation Critique

For this paper find a research report that uses experimentation. This paper should be posted as a Word attachment in your Individual forum and should adhere to APA formatting. Prepare a critique on that experiment that addresses the following topics:

Describe the independent and dependent variables used in the study.
Comment on the sampling used to gather subjects, as well as on the reliability and validity of the study.

Only journal articles reporting actual experimentation are appropriate for this assignment-magazine or newspaper articles, opinion pieces, and commentaries are not appropriate.

Look for an abstract at the beginning of the article.
Make sure the article includes a description of the independent and dependent variables and the sampling plan.

"Mail surveys of small business owners have notoriously low response rates, creating the potential for substantial error in surveys of this population and diminishing the credibility of research conducted on small firms. The author recently carried out an experiment as part of a larger project involving 16,000 small business owner/members of the National Federation of Independent Business (NFIB). The experiment's purpose was to ascertain survey treatments that might enhance mail survey response among small business owners. Results showed that none of the six treatments examined improved response rates enough to warrant its routine use over the alternative, nor did any combinations of treatments help. The implication is that commonly used treatments, for example prenotification, often are unproductive Dennis, W. J. (July, 2003)."

Dennis, W.J. (July, 2003). Raising Response Rates in Mail Surveys of Small Business Owners. Journal of Small Business Management, 41(3), 278-295.

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