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True or false and multiple choice

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1. Critical thinking is a natural process which requires no effort.
A ) True
B ) False

2. Critical thinking skills are important in...
A ) school
B ) home
C ) civic life
D ) work
E ) all of the above

3. Logic is
A ) useful in winning arguments
B ) a fallacy
C ) the study of arguing clearly and without error
D ) all of the above

4. Perception is reality.
A ) True
B ) False
C ) Only in the eyes of the perceiver

5. The perception process is typically outlined through the following
three steps:
A ) input, output, action
B ) psychological, physiological, social
C ) see, hear, act
D ) selection, organization, interpretation

6. Since older people have more life experiences from which to draw,
their perceptions are more accurate.
A ) True
B ) False

7. Which one of the following statements is true?
A ) Assumptions are explicit rather than implicit
B ) Assumptions must be avoided at all cost
C ) Assumptions are the same as stereotypes
D ) Assumptions can be corrected

8. Assumptions will generate new ideas that will help expand our
A ) True
B ) False

9. Once we have accepted a viewpoint as sound, we should
A ) hang on to it and take for granted that it works in all
B ) periodically think about possible alternatives.
C ) constantly question it, because we can't believe in the truth of
D ) none of the above

10. When engaged in critical thinking, it is best to leave out emotions.

A ) True
B ) False

11. Our critical thinking skills are often vulnerable because of our
A ) True
B ) False

12. Ambiguity refers to
A ) two or more possible meanings.
B ) a characteristic of informative language.
C ) a and b

13. The best way to present our reasoning is by using...
A ) emotive language.
B ) persuasive language.
C ) informative language.
D ) all of the above.

14. One of the following statements is an issue to be argued. Which
A ) He moved to Detroit because his mother lives there and she needs
daily care
B ) Oscar Wilde's play An Ideal Husband first appeared in 1895
C ) Beethoven's symphonies are the best music ever written
D ) She accepted a $90,000 a year offer to work at a prestigious
software company

15. Identify the conclusion in the following argument:
He is an inconsiderate person because he damaged my reputation unjustly
and he refused to repay the money I had lent him.
A ) he is an inconsiderate person
B ) he damaged my reputation
C ) he refused to repay the money I had lent him

16. The scientific method is based on
A ) induction
B ) deduction
C ) both

17. In inductive reasoning, a hypothesis is a tentative conclusion that
helps us organize ideas until we can come to a definite conclusion.
A ) True
B ) False

18. In deductive reasoning, a hypothesis is a tentative conclusion that
helps us organize ideas until we can come to a definite conclusion.
A ) True
B ) False

19. In a fallacy, the conclusion is unwarranted by the premises.
A ) True
B ) False

20. Identify the fallacy:
I implore you to find Mrs. Bobbit not guilty for mutilating her husband,
since her home life was so horribly traumatic.
A ) non sequitur
B ) ad hominem
C ) post hoc ergo propter hoc
D ) slippery slope
E ) appeal to emotion

21. Identify the fallacy:
Since the ancient Egyptians did so much excavation to construct the
pyramids, they were good archeologists.
A ) non sequitur
B ) ad hominem
C ) post hoc ergo propter hoc
D ) slippery slope
E ) appeal to emotion

22. It is impossible to completely avoid biases, prejudices, and
stereotypes in the critical thinking process.
A ) True
B ) False

23. When we are being defensive, we believe the most important thing
A ) to solve the issue at hand.
B ) to win the argument.
C ) to gain new insight.
D ) to keep an open mind.

Directions: Each questions or group of questions is based on a passage
or set of conditions. In answering some of these questions, it may be
useful to draw a rough diagram. For each question, select the best
answer choice given.

24. In the 1950's sixty percent of treated cancer patients lived at
least five years after the detection of the disease. Now, sixty percent
live at least seven years after detection. This fact demonstrates that,
because of improved methods of treatment, cancer patients now live
longer after they contract the disease than cancer patients did in the
The conclusion of the argument above depends on which of the following

A ) In the 1950's only sixty per cent of cancer patients received
treatment, whereas now a substantially higher percentage does.
B ) Free medical treatment is more likely to be available now to
people who have no health insurance than it was in the 1950's.
C ) Detection of cancer does not now take place, on average,
significantly earlier in the progression of the disease than it did in
the 1950's.
D ) Physicians now usually predict a longer life for cancer patients
after detection of the disease than did physicians in the 1950's.
E ) The number of cancer patients now is approximately the same as it
was in the 1950's.

25. Four people, A, B, C, and D are to be seated at a round table.
There are six chairs equidistantly spaced around the table.
A must sit two seats from B.
C must sit next to either A or B, or both.

If D sits next to A, which of the following must be true?

A ) A sits directly across from an empty chair.
B ) D sits directly across from an empty chair.
C ) D sits two seats from an empty chair.
D ) A sits next to an empty chair.
E ) C sits next to an empty chair.

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Solution Preview

A general comment: several of the questions you're being asked are issues that philosophers debate, so there is no unequivocally correct answers. Unless you hold strong views on them, I suggest you play it safe and just repeat what your instructor has said.

B) False. Surely the course isn't a cakewalk?

2. E)

3. A) and C) Logic can be brought to bear on fallacies but it is not itself a fallacy.

4. One can make an argument for any of these, so be sure to answer whatever your course said. For example, ...

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Although the Occupational Safety and Health Act regulates workplace safety, OSHA is not empowered to inspect businesses to enforce those regulations.

1. Although the Occupational Safety and Health Act regulates workplace safety, OSHA is not empowered to inspect businesses to enforce those regulations. Rather, it can enforce them only after an employee is injured.

True False


2. The Employee Retirement Income Security Act requires certain employers to provide pension plans for their employees.

True False


3. The Fair Labor Standards Act requires double-time pay for all working hours in excess of 40 per week.

True False


4. The Age Discrimination in Employment Act protects people age 40 and over from age discrimination.

True False


5. The federal Polygraph Protection Act recognizes employers' need to administer lie detector tests to their employees, and permits most such tests.

True False


6. Drug and alcohol testing of public employees is per se unconstitutional.

True False


7. The Fair Labor Standards Act:
A) Forbids the employment of all people below the age of 17.
B) Requires that hourly employees be paid at a double-time rate for weekend work.
C) Applies only to employers with 25 or more employees.
D) None of the above.

Answer: C

8. Which of the following entities is not covered by Title VII? Assume that the entity in question discriminates on one of the bases forbidden by Title VII.
A) An individual who employs 100 people.
B) A corporation employing five people.
C) A 50-member union that discriminates against its members.
D) A private college with 500 employees.
E) An employment agency with three employees that discriminates in its referrals to the IBM Corporation.

Answer: D

9. Pat is an assembly line worker who has developed carpal tunnel syndrome. She has asked for equipment that will allow her to stay on the assembly line. The employer has declined her request. If Pat sues her employer under the ADA, which of the following could be the employer's defense?
A) Pat is able to brush her teeth, garden, and care for her young children.
B) Pat is no longer a "qualified individual" for the job because she has carpal tunnel syndrome.
C) Pat is only entitled to workers' compensation.
D) There are no mitigating measures available to Pat.

Answer: B

10. Jack is a new attorney for Day and Knight, a law firm in New York City. He is told by Jill, Managing Partner, that retention and promotion depends on whether he is seen as a "team player" who is "loyal" and "subordinate." Jill has asked out Jack every day for the past week. Jack firmly refuses her invitation each time. After four months, Jill terminates Jack after she criticizes him for being disloyal and insubordinate. Jack asks Jill why, and she replies, "you know why." Which of the following statements regarding Jack's termination is most accurate?
A) Jack cannot sue the law firm because he failed to complain about Jill's conduct.
B) Jack cannot sue under Title VII because its protections regarding gender do not include men.
C) The law firm is strictly liable for Jack's termination.
D) If Jill is now required to attend a seminar on workplace harassment, then the firm is not liable under Title VII.

Answer: D

11. The Clean Air Act's permit system contains monitoring and reporting requirements.

True False


12. One defect in federal regulation of hazardous waste sites under CERCLA is that the federal and state governments must bear the sole financial burden for cleaning up the sites.

True False


13. The federal government does not regulate the dumping of materials into the oceans; international bodies have the sole responsibility for such regulation.

True False


14. The EPA regulates underground storage tanks such as those for gasoline.

True False

15. Under the Clean Water Act, the states have the main responsibility for regulating water pollution.

True False


16. The regulation of automobile pollution is primarily a state matter.

True False


17. Which of the following government actions may be taken under the Clean Air Act?
A) A factory may be required to limit its emissions of substances that contribute to smog.
B) A power plant may be required to limit its emissions of sulfur oxides to a certain number of pounds per Btu of energy produced.
C) Bakeries in certain areas may be required to further control its emissions from baking.
D) A and B.
E) All of the above

Answer: E

18. The 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act address the problem of acid rain by:
A) Ordering the drainage of all lakes in which it is present.
B) Ordering the chemical treatment of all lakes in which it is present.
C) Banning the burning of coal in electric utilities by the year 2000.
D) None of the above.

Answer: D

19. The term "Superfund" refers to:
A) The fund the states require each disposer of solid waste to maintain.
B) The pool of money collected to compensate victims of nuclear reactor disasters.
C) The Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA).
D) The fund that the automobile industry must maintain to develop alternative-fuel vehicles.

Answer: C

20. The Clean Water Act and its amendments do not regulate:
A) Industrial wastes.
B) Wetlands.
C) Discharges of pollutants.
D) Drinking water.

Answer: A

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